The urethra is the tube passing from the bladder down the penis or to the upper aspect of the vagina. At the top epd, just below the bladder, are consciously and unconsciously controlled valves (involved with the prostate in the male) diat allow urine flow. Bacteria may travel up the urethra from the external skin surface but these are generally washed away by the flow of urine on a regular basis. The male urethra is a stretchable tube allowing for an erection but it is quite a long passage for bacteria to travel to infect the bladder. The urethra in women is much shorter, and markedly so in girls, increasing the chances of infection and cystitis.


External hygiene is extremely important and washing the genitals is a must, especially at an early age or after intercourse.

Good hydration leading to frequent urination is an important protective measure.

Urethral discharge

A discharge from the urethra is usually associated with bacterial infection although yeast infection such as Candida may be a culprit. The colour often gives away the causative agent. A yellow/green discharge is usually gonorrhoea, which is the most common cause.


Immediately start treatment by water intake to flush the system.

Collect a urine sample for the doctor’s surgery.

A urethral swab is recommended so that an accurate diagnosis can be made and the correct antibiotic used if required. See Cystitis for the treatment.

Urethral stricture

A stricture is an obstruction, usually caused by scar tissue. Congenital malformations may account for a small percentage. Scar tissue is usually formed after a severe infection or recurrent problems and may, if severe, impede urinary flow or cause pain when passing urine. and very often associated with cyclical changes of rising oestrogen levels just before and during the period.

The condition is caused by the presence of the


Any difficulty in the flow of urine must be assessed by a urologist.

Commence the homeopathic remedy Silica 30 three times a day for two weeks because this remedy may remove unwanted scar tissue.

Manual breakdown of the stricture may be required and performed by passing a metal rod into the penis under general anaesthetic and surgical conditions. If this is required, see Operations and surgery.