The testes descend from the abdomen and rest in the scrotal sac (scrotum) away from the body because their function and their maturity depend upon being below body temperature. Considering how sensitive they are, they have very little protection other than that the reflexes in that area which are very rapid and will draw the body around the midriff swiftly.

Sperm are produced at a rapid rate and each spermatozoon lives approximately five days. If no ejaculation has taken place the sperm break down and are re-absorbed. Sperm are stored in a collection of tubules known as the vas deferens before passing up into the urethra at the level of the prostate via the vas deferens.

It is here that the sperm mix with the seminal fluid from the prostate. This mildly viscous,

The Testes and Penis sticky, milky compound completes the ejaculate and contains fructose in high quantities which provide the sperm with food on their journey.

Injury to the testes

Any trauma to the testes is extremely painful because of the high number of nerves in the area. The testes are associated with a complex of blood and lymphatic vessels and any trauma can rupture these, forming cysts . An injury to a blood vessel may bleed and cause a haematoma (bruise), which, while clotting, may cut off the blood supply and lead to testicular gangrene.

Encase the scrotum in an ice-filled flannel to relieve the discomfort.

Take deep breaths, pulling energy down into the lower abdomen.

Take Arnica 6 every lOmin until the discomfort is relieved and then every 2hr until the pain has gone completely.

Any pain that is not easing within a couple of hours must be examined by a physician in case a more serious injury has occurred. Delay may run the risk of the loss of the testicle.


The testicle hangs in the scrotal sack to be kept away from the heat of the body (the testicle works best at 1°C lower than body temperature). This requires blood vessels and nerves to travel from the body along the spermatic cord from the testes up to the penis. The testicle is anchored into place through fibres that may be congenitally absent or damaged through trauma. If this is the case, the testes can twist causing occlusion of the blood vessels and an excruciatingly painful pressure on the nerves. If this twist or torsion is not corrected the testicle will die from a lack of oxygen and gangrene with its inherent dangers will set in. It is not possible to miss a torsion except in an infant since the pain is fierce.


Please follow the advice for an injured testicle .

Any pain persisting without remission over 2hr must be reviewed by a doctor.

Repair of a torsion that does not spontaneously untwist is surgical. In an emergency situation untwisting the testes may be possible provided that the turn is in the right direction. The pain is such that it is difficult to discern this as no relief will be immediately noticeable. This procedure must only be undertaken by somebody with experience who cannot operate immediately or if medical availability is too far away. In any case an operation is required because the testes need to be fixed to prevent recurrence.

The remedy Aconite 6 can be taken every lOmin whilst awaiting treatment.

Ice wrapped in a flannel and applied may reduce swelling but the slightest touch may make the pain worse and therefore even the ice is not desired.

Please accept an anaesthetic or an intravenous tranquillizer such as valium, despite any alternative medical views of these drugs. The bravest of brave are unlikely to deal with the pain of examination, let alone treatment.

See Operations and surgery.


Thrush is the colloquial name for a Candida infection, commonly found in the vagina but also affecting other moist areas such as the anus and oral cavity. Men with foreskins may have an irritation there .


Trichomonas is a protozoan (an organism that exhibits both bacterial and viral activity) that may be responsible for vaginitis and uterine infections.