There are several linings to the brain, the outermost of which is called the dura. A bleed, usually caused by trauma but occasionally by disease of blood vessels or an infection, is known as an extradural haemorrhage.

As with any bleeding vessel the flow of blood may be swift, in which case neurological symptoms, loss of consciousness and headache may be apparent. A slow bleed, however, may take up to six weeks before symptoms as mild as a change of character may be noticed.


Any injury or blow to the head, persistent headache or neurological symptoms should be reviewed by a physician.

A telltale sign of an intracranial (within the skull) bleed is one pupil (often on the other side from the injury) being dilated or constricted – but definitely different from the other side and potentially unresponsive.

Any suspicion of a bleed must be examined by a CT scan for safety.

Following a head injury, ensure that friends and relatives keep an eye on behaviour patterns. A change in character anywhere up to six weeks following a blow to the skull needs to be treated as an emergency by a hospital.

The homeopathic remedy Natrum Sulphuricum potency 6 can be used every 15min on the way to the hospital following any head injury. Natrum sulphuricum 200 taken each night for three nights can be used following a head injury.

Orthodox treatment may be as simple as monitoring but may also include blood-letting following bur-holes in the skull .

Subdural haematoma

A subdural haematoma is a bleed underneath the dura. It behaves and requires treatment similar to an extradural haematoma or haemorrhage.

RECOMMENDATION • For recommendation and treatment , whereas soft lenses tend to cover the entire iris (the coloured part of the eye). Hard lenses are cheaper and more durable and can be used for a much broader spectrum of visual problems but they tend to be less comfortable. The soft lenses wear out more quickly, cost more and are not so easy to keep sterile.

It is of paramount importance that sterility is maintained when the contact lenses are not in the eye. Following your optician’s instructions is extremely important to avoid irritation, inflammation such as iritis and conjunctivitis and more serious conditions such as chronic blepharitis. Always wash your hands before removing or inserting your contact lenses and, however experienced you may be, do not rush the process. It takes one misjudged addition or removal to cause potentially permanent eye damage. Please note that contact lens cleaner may have an association with chemical damage to the eyes and must be rinsed off thoroughly.


The choice of lens should be made in consultation with an optician specializing in contact lenses.

Do not shirk the responsibility of cleaning the lenses.

Clean hands before touching the lens or eyes.

Always thoroughly wash off any contact lens cleaning solution because these may damage the eye.

Antiseptic solutions will also kill off the body’s normal and useful bacteria found along the edges of the eyelids.