How the Handy Man and Woman may save Money by Making and Repairing Articles for the Home
The so-called designs for which ordinary battens and rustic arch is an unsatisfactory object laths will suffice.
Unless skilfully fashioned from carefully- For posts, 2i in. x 2h in. or 3 in. x 2 in. selected pieces. On the whole, arches stuff should be strong enough. Though built up out of straight pieces, or straight pointed posts can be driven fairly easily pieces bent to curves, are to be preferred. It is better to dig holes and bury their There are many possible and sightly bases, as this course makes it possible to reinforce them at the bottom with boards having ample surface to resist strains. All underground parts, it is hardly necessary to add, should be thoroughly treated with preservative, if the arch is to have a long life.
An arch should be high enough to give 6 ft. G in. or 7 ft. of headroom; and there are distinct advantages in making it rigid and strong enough to lean a ladder against for the necessary operations of pruning and tying up whatever is trained over it.
When they have all been fixed, the cross laths are attached, beginning at the centre and working both ways. During nailing, the laths should be supported by something solid, such as a mallet or second hammer. All nails are clinched after being driven.
The fourth type of arch has a curved crown of laths touching the under side of a cross-piece. The two frame parts are 14 in. apart, and connected by laths or trellis-work.
The posts are S ft. 6 in. or 9 ft. long, to give a headroom of 6 ft. 6 in. or 7 ft., and allow for burying them to a depth of 2 ft. The top bars are notched to take the heads of the posts, which are cut off with a slight outward slope, so that the bars may throw off water. The two uprights and the two crossbars of a side are held together by 5-in. Wire nails, for which holes have been bored in the posts.
The formation of the shoulder leaves a triangular tongue, which also helps to prevent the strut slipping, besides continuing the lower edge of the strut up the post. A similar shoulder is made at the top, which is 1 in. below the upper surface of the top bar, to give room for a crossbar, 1 in. thick, to be fitted in. One piece of this bar is bevelled to 45°, the raking angle of the struts.
In erecting the arch, begin by putting up the sides, after ramming hard the bottom of the holes in which they will stand. The top bars come in handy for keeping the sides the correct distance apart while the holes are partly filled. Then put the top bars in place, drive 4-inch nails a little way in to steady them, plumb the sides, and test squareness of top angles. Trellises. The cheapest form of trellis is the diagonal expanding, which opens out into squares of 4 inches on the side. It is sold in lengths of 12 feet when expanded, and in widths up to 6 feet.
After two or three applications of creosote to all the visible woodwork, the trellis, creosoted beforehand, is nailed on. This can be bought ready-made to open to a width of 18 inches. It should not extend quite to the outside corners of the posts.
The span of the arch will be governed by conditions. If it should exceed 6 feet made quickly by nailing together 1-inch by I-inch laths. It is more pleasing to the eye in many positions than the diagonal.
The latter should be creosoted. Or painted before being put together, as the operation is carried out much more easily at this stage.
ARCHES creosote over it, catching the surplus in a vessel for re-use. A few minutes of flooding will do the work of hours of brushing over, and do it better, as the liquid finds its way into the places which cannot be reached with a brush.
Fixing Trellises to Walls. – A trellis should never be fixed direct to a wall. If it stands away an inch or two the fingers can get behind the slats, and tying becomes a much easier operation.
Where a trellis does not extend above the top of a wall, it may be attached to 2-inch by f-inch slating battens, nailed horizontally, 2 feet or 2 feet G inches apart. Dove-tailed in this position, they got a much better hold than if driven in straight. In fact, a straight nail may have very little grip at all, if the mortar is friable.
Should the trellis project above the wall, it must be fastened to a framework, for which uprights of 3-inch by 2-inch stuff, and horizontals of 2-inch by 2-inch batten, are recommended. The uprights should extend 6 inches into the ground, and be fixed first. They are held by groups of three 6-inch nails, one of each group being driven in straight first, to get the post plumb, and hold it so while the diagonal nails are driven above and below it .
To ensure all the tops being level, the two end posts should be fixed first, and a string stretched tightly between their tops as a guide for the intermediate posts. A bar of 2-inch by 2-inch wood is then nailed along the tops, for the upper edge of the trellis to rest against. It may be covered by a capj)ing-piece 3 inches wide, hovelled from the centre lino to each edge, to shed rain.
The positions for the horizontals which come between the posts are now marked. Fixing will be facilitated if a fillet is nailed to each side of a post for the ends of abutting bars to rest on while being nailed . If the wall is somewhat roughly built, the bars may not touch ib at the ends, in which case a packing-piece should be interposed, as in Fig 3 d, to keep back flush with posts. Bars are attached to posts by nails driven in askew through the post and top.
The framework should be well creosoted before the trellis is attached, special attention being paid to the tops of the bars, on which water will tend to lodge. The posts should be so spaced that the lengths of trellis, when expanded to the depth desired, shall meet on the centrelines of posts. To get a neat joint it is advisable to overlap the pieces slightly and cut both through with a tenon saw, down the centre-line.
Babys Playground, A. – This is made out of sound slating battens, measuring 2 inches by – inch, carefully planed. It has sides 6 feet long, ends 3 feet long, and a height all round of 18 inches. The sides are divided into three panels by two uprights halved – or, much better, tenoned – into the top and bottom rails.
A side has an end hinged to it. For use, the free end of a side is hooked to the free end of an end, hooks and eyes being fitted for the purpose. The hooks may be reinforced by straps, to make things doubly secure; The woodwork is put together with glue and screws, and sandpapered all over to remove any splinters. The inside is then lined with towelling, attached by round-headed nails.
When not in use the apparatus is easily stored, as it folds into a small space.
Bath, Re-enamelling a. – To make a thorough job, all the old paint should be cleaned off the inside surface, and the metal be exposed completely. This operation can be carried through quickly with a painters blow-lamp and scraper, though the heat may blister the paint on the outside and require it to be renewed. Alternative is to apply one of the paint-removers sold by oilmen, or brush on a strong solution of equal part3 of washing soda and quicklime, until the enamel has softened sufficiently to be scraped off. When cleaned, the bath is well washed with water and allowed to dry. Rusty spots then require attention, since rust will prevent the enamel adhering permanently. After they have been well scraped and rubbed with emery cloth, a weak solution of sulphuric acid should be applied, followed by a vigorous rubbing with liquid ammonia and water.
Two or three coats of flat (non-glossy) undercoating, sold for the purpose, are put on, ample time being allowed between coats for thorough hardening. Bath enamel is used for the finishing coat. When this has set for 24 hours, fill the bath with cold water and leave it for a few days. The longer the enamel is allowed to harden before being exposed to hot water, the longer it will keep in good condition.