Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Eating and ill health

Undernutrition, starvation and famine still prevails in many countries. Threequarters of the people in the world rely on locally produced cereal staples to supply most of their dietary energy. In any country where more than twothirds of the dietary energy comes from cereals one can expect malnutrition to be prevalent, because cereals cannot supply all…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

The energy balance

We remain at constant body weight only if we achieve a balance between energy intake and energy output. Energy intake results from the ingestion of food, there is no other route for energy absorption. Energy output is achieved through a variety of mechanisms. Everyone who is alive, whether asleep or even unconscious, is using energy…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Sweetness

Man has always craved for sweetness but it is only within this century that the vast quantities of sugar now consumed have become available. Sugarbeet and cane are grown specially lor sugar production. Consumption now runs at an average of one kilogramme (two pounds) per head per week in Britain. Granulated white sugar is a…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Eggs, chocolate and cheese

Eggs have always been considered extremely nutritious because they contain all the nutrients necessary for the growth of the young chick. Recent research into coronary heart disease has revealed that not only saturated fats, but also a fatlike substance called cholesterol which is concen trated in egg yolks, may contribute to the disease. Some doctors…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Fats

Margarine was invented in 1869 by a French chemist, who used suet to produce a cheap type of fat to supply the soldiers in the FrancoPrussian War. The Dutch invented a method of adding hydrogen to the unsaturated vegetable oils thus causing them to solidify. It has taken considerable research to develop the modern product….

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Bread

For many centuries white bread was regarded as an expensive luxury food, owing to the low yield of flour after the removal of bran and wheat germ during milling. Wholemeal and bran breads were eaten by poor people. Several factors contributed to the increased availability of flour, that made white bread available to the whole…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Modern foods

There is nothing new about man’s need to preserve food for storage or convenience of preparation. Sundrying, salting, pickling and smoking are methods which have been used for centuries and are still used today. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to preserve food by decreasing the risk of microbiological spoilage with less loss…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Vitamins

In a recent survey, ninetynine percent of the people questioned had heard of vitamins. Nowadays we hear a great deal about vitamins as there is hardly one which does not have a controversial aspect. Many of the vitamin requirements were established decades ago but claims are now being made for large doses of vitamins which…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

World wide foods

Although food habits and customs differ widely throughout the world, man’s requirements for health vary little between the different races. Everyone needs an abundant source of energy, and a starchy food called a staple usually dominates the eating of any particular culture. Starches have to be cooked to be digested so staples are prepared in…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Feeding an expanding population

Population growth by the middle of the nineteenth century had outstripped the increased production of food and the food laws, banning the import of food had to be repealed. Food production and distribution methods lagged behind the new lifestyle imposed by the Industrial Revolution. The country people sent much of their food to the overcrowded…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Drinking

The major constituent of our bodies is water, and we need plenty of water passing through our systems to keep us healthy. Man can only survive a few days without water whereas he can last for months without food. Tap water also supplies minerals and trace elements. Coronary heart disease is less prevalent in hard…

Nutrition and Health | Uncategorized

Protein and amino acids

While the biochemists were exploring the vitamins, the physiologists were busy investigating the needs of the whole animal. Nearly two centuries ago the first measurements of the energy expenditure of animals were made, by enclosing them in an insulated chamber and observing the amount of ice melted by heat from their bodies. Lavoisier also measured…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Hopetoun House Nature Trail

Hopetoun House Preservation Trust, Estates Office, South Queensferry, West Lothian, EH30 9SL On unclassified road 1 mile north of A904 2 miles west of Forth Road Bridge approach roundabout Map reference: NT089 2-mile trail in wooded and estuary shore grounds of 18th-century mansion-fallow deer and rare black St Kilda sheep Illustrated trail brochure; free park…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Island of Bute Natural History Trails

The Buteshire Natural History Society, The Museum, Stuart Street, Rothesay, Bute Bute is reached by regular vehicle ferry services Wemyss Bay – Rothesay and Colintraive – Rhubodach Map references: Bull Loch Trail NS026 South end of Bute Trail 5 NS106 Two of 7 trails around the island prepared by local natural historians: inland Bull Loch…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Glamis Castle Nature Trail

Strathmore Estates Ltd, Estates Office, Glamis, Angus, DD8 IRQ Off A928 4 miles south of Kirriemuir close to junction with A94 at village of Glamis Map reference: N0387 1-mile trail viewing superb mature trees and parkland wildlife in grounds of historic castle—good access for disabled visitors Illustrated trail guide; car park; tours of castle Probably…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Glencoe Forest Trails

Forestry Commission, Forest Office, Glenachulish, Argyll Trails centred on Glencoe village on A82 Tyndrum-Kinlochleven road Map references: Signal Rock Trail NN129565 Lochan Forest Trail NN099 Two trails in small woodlands at mouth of historic Glencoe: Signal Rock Trail-about 1J miles; Lochan Trail-about 2 miles Illustrated trail booklet; car parks; visitor centres; cafes in village Nestled…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Glen More and Loch an Eilein Nature Trails

Glen More Forest Trails, Forestry Commission, Glen More Information Centre, Aviemore, Highland Glen More Trail On ski road off B970 (at Coylumbridge) 6 miles east of Aviemore Map reference: NH974 Three trails displaying both modern forestry techniques and natural Cairngorm flora and fauna: Shore Trail – U miles; River trail – 3 miles; Pinewood Trail…

Sutton Bank Trail
Nature Trails

Sutton Bank Trail

Yorkshire Naturalists’ Trust, 20 Castlegate, York, Yol 1RP At Cooper Cross car park on A170 between Thirsk (5j miles) and Helmsley (6 miles) Map reference: SE515 2-mile trail down and around limestone cliffs and woodland Nature Reserve -some steep scrambling, so wear sturdy shoes Illustrated trail brochure from Trust, tourist and National Park offices; car…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Christchurch Forest Trail

The Forestry Commission, Crown Offices, Coleford, Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire Off B4228 mile north of junction with A4136 at Lower Berry Hill -signposted to campsites Map reference: S0568 21-mile trail through ancient and modern afforestation of deciduous and coniferous trees-passes mine-workings, charcoal hearth and woodpecker haunts Illustrated trail brochure; car park; campsites; well-stocked food shop;…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Oxwich National Nature Reserve

Nature Conservancy Council, Oxwich Reserve Centre, Oxwich, Swansea, SA3 1LS 11 miles the A4118 on unclassified road 11 miles west of Swansea -signposted Oxwich Map reference: SS502 Two trails in small coastal National Nature Reserve: Sand Dunes Trail -1-mile walk illustrating dune erosion and deposition; Woodland Walk – 3-mile walk through cliffside woodland and pasture…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Skomer Island Nature Trail

West Wales Naturalists’ Trust, 7 Market Street, Haverfordwest, Dyfed Reached by boat (April-October) from Martin’s Haven 2 miles past Marloes village on unclassified road off B4327. Also boats from Dale. Sailing details from The Information Officer, Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, County Offices, Haverfordwest, Dyfed, SA61 1QZ Map references: Martin’s Haven SM760092 Skomer North Haven SM735…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Cwmrheidol Nature Trail

Central Electricity Generating Board, Rheidol Power Station, Capel Bangor, Aberystwyth, Dyfed On unclassified road 3 miles off A44 at Capel Bangor-signposted Cwmrheidol. Also access from Aberffrwd Halt on Vale of Rheidol Light Railway (BR, Aberystwyth -Devil’s Bridge). Trail starts at CEGB visitor centre Map reference: SN697 2j–mile trail around a river valley dammed for a…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Penrhos Nature Reserve Trail

On A5 2 miles east of Holyhead at west end of Stanley Embankment Map reference: SH275 2J-mile trail around coastal headland Nature Reserve – large sea bird population Trail brochures and illustrated sign boards on trail; car park; picnic area; tea cabin; exhibition; bird and animal hospital; good facilities for disabled Anglesey Aluminium Metal Ltd,…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Snowdonia: Miners’Track and Cwm Idwal Trails

Nature Conservancy Council, PenrhosRoad, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2LQ The Miners’ Track On A4086 in Llanberis Pass 1 mile from junction with A498 (Pen y Gwryd Hotel) Map reference: SH648 3-mile section of public footpath leading to Snowdon summit through glacial valley with lakes, mineral workings and rock and bog vegetation Car park (often crowded, early…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Slurring Rock NatureTrail

Metropolitan Borough of Calder, Information Centre, 1 Bridge Gate, Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire, HX7 8JP On unclassified road off A6033 li miles north of Hebden Bridge centre — signposted Hardcastle Crags Map reference: SD997 Approximately 2-mile trail along valley of Hebden Water, woodlands and rock escarpment – beautiful aspects compared to Switzerland by Swiss visitors…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Reginald Farrer Trail

Yorkshire Dales National Park Centre, Clapham, North Yorkshire Trail starts at National Park Centre in village of Clapham on A65 between Settle (6 miles) and Kendal (23 miles) Map reference: SD745 4-41-mile trail illustrating social, historical and geological impact on a limestone landscape. National Park Centre open Easter-early November (mid-morning-late afternoon) Illustrated trail brochure; car…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Smithy Beck and Dodd Wood Trails

Forestry Commission, Helvellyn Street, Keswick, Cumbria Smithy Beck Forest Trail At end of unclassified road through hamlet of Croasdale 2 miles north east of Ennerdale Bridge at Bowness Knott carpark Map reference: NY108155 (Bowness Knott car park) Approx 2i-mile trail through Ennerdale Forest with spectacular lakeland views. Some steep sections Dodd Wood Forest Trail On…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

May Beck Trail

North York Moors National Park, The Old Vicarage, Bondgate, Helmsley, Y06 5BP H miles off B1416 on unclassified road between Ruswarp and junction with A Map reference: NZ892 4-mile trail around a moor farm, open moorland and a conifer plantation-shows the hard life of the moor farmer and the harmony of forestry, game and farming…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Gibraltar Point Nature Reserve

Lincolnshire and South Humberside Trust for Nature Conservation, Gibraltar Point, Skegness, Lincolnshire (and at Manor House, Alford, Lincolnshire) At end of Gibraltar Road, 3 miles south of Skegness town centre Map reference: TF555 1-mile long Reserve with marked paths which can be followed at will – principal features are the duneland and saltmarsh environments Very…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Coombe Valley Nature Trail

Cornwall Naturalists’ Trust, Malcolm S Henchley, Ferrers, Stamford Hill, Bude, Cornwall Off A39 unclassified road near to the hamlet of Coombe about 5 miles north of Bude Map reference SS210 li-mile trail through wooded valley close to sea – easy to negotiate for young families Illustrated trail brochure from Trust and local tourism offices; small…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Cardinham Woods Trails

Forestry Commission, Dunmere, Bodmin, Cornwall 2 miles east of Bodmin off unclassified road at Turfdown 3 mile from A Map reference: SX099 Four trails with themes: Riverside Walk – H miles; Bluebell Walk – 2-mile extension of Riverside Walk taking in bluebell glades; Panorama Walk – miles (also connected to Bluebell Walk) with some steep…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Salcombe Hill Trail, Sidmouth

The Devon Trust for Nature Conservation, 2 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter li miles off A3052 through Salcombe Regis or I mile east of Sidmouth on unclassified road to Salcombe Regis Map Reference: SY139 4i-mile circuit of public footpaths crossing 500ft Salcombe Hill through trees and heath with beautiful sea views Information boards; illustrated brochure from local…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Dunsford Nature Reserve

The Devon Trust for Nature Conservation, 2 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter On B3212 south west of Dunsford village and 9 miles from Exeter Map reference: SX805 2-mile long Reserve with bridle path, Fisherman’s Path, and Daffodil Walk in wooded river valley Information board at trail entrances; illustrated brochure from tourist information caravan on B3212 (about 250…

Nature Trails | Uncategorized

Bolderwood Forest Walks

Forestry Commission, The Queen’s House, Lyndhurst, Hampshire S04 7NH On unclassified road 1 mile south east off A31 Southampton-Ringwood road, 61 miles north east of Ringwood Map reference: SZ243 Three walks through a central New Forest highland among mature trees: Radnor Walk-j mile; Arboretum Walk- li miles; Mark Ash Walk-3 Smiles Trail notes or full…