Soft Fruits — the long term big savers for self sufficient gardeners

The savings you can make by growing your own soft and cane fruits are every bit as great as those you can make by growing your own vegetables. The cash value of the fruit a gooseberry bush will produce in its first year of fruiting will pay for the bush: but if you look after it it will go on producing crops of that magnitude for about thirty years. The savings you make by growing your own fruit will be greater year by year.

The fruits mentioned h are all suitable for gardens of any size -even the smallest of gardens. They can be grown in’ the vegetable garden, in rows to divide the different rotation blocks within the vegetable plot. There are two great advantages to growing them this way. The first is that they will provide shelter from wind and weather for the vegetables, the other is that they will act as barriers to deter any pests you may get on your vegetables from spreading right through the plot.

A very large number of soft and cane fruits can be grown together in quite a small area. The cane fruits can be grown on wires stretched between poles to provide a type of hedge to protect the vegetable plot. Gooseberries can be grown in the shade of this hedge, interspersed with redcurrants, while strawberries can be grown under either of these fruits. If you already have established apple trees, gooseberries can be grown under them, and strawberries under the gooseberries with the result that you harvest a tremendously large crop from a very small area.

If you are thinking of saving space, abandon old fashioned ideas that gooseberries and other soft fruits grow into large, sprawling bushes. They can be grown as cordons trained flat against wires stretched between poles. Grown this way, they will not only look neat and occupy minimal space, but they will yield just as heavily as the traditional bushes.


Many soft fruits are excellent for freezing. New varieties are being introduced all the time specially for the purpose: it is essential for them to keep their shape and eating qualities after they have been frozen for twelve months. Some of the older varieties do not do this. The deep freeze is most useful for those fruits which grow during ‘glut’ periods — none need then be wasted. But you must make sure they are frozen in top condition.

The fruits you intend to deep freeze should be picked just before they are fully ripe. If you let them become overripe they will get ‘mushy’ before you have time to freeze them. Gooseberries are no problem, but blackberries, strawberries and raspberries need to be put individually on trays, not touching each other, and placed in the freezer for two hours — so that they are partially frozen then and keep their shape. You then put them in the freezer bags and pop them back as soon as you can. They will keep perfectly for a year or so, but need two to three hours to thaw before you eat them.

Some fruits freeze better than others. Don’t use strawberries which ripen to a deep crimson and are very sweet, such as ‘Cambridge Aristocrat’ and ‘Rearguard’. Grow them for eating straightaway instead. For freezing, grow ‘Royal Sovereign’, ‘Cambridge Vigour’ and ‘Favourite’. Among raspberries, ‘Mailing Jewel’, ‘Lloyd George’, ‘Glen Clova’ and ‘Norfolk Giant’ freeze well. Among blackcurrants, ‘Mendip Cross’, ‘Cots-wold Cross’ and ‘Wellington XXX’ are good: the fruits have fairly thick skins. Loganberries and youngberries also freeze well: they have a core to them. And among blackberries, ‘Himalaya Giant’ and ‘Oregon Thornless’ are good because they keep their shape and quality well after picking and freezing.

English: Pick your own at Hilter Farm. Raspber...
English: Pick your own at Hilter Farm. Raspberries and strawberries are ready. The strawberries in the foreground are being grown “tabletop” style with the plants in growbags suspended at about 4 feet above the ground to enable easier picking and clean fruit. There has to be a good irrigation system in place, and the fruit may not taste quite as good as when soil-grown. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Today there are varieties you can grow right through from mid-May (under cloches) to Christmas in the areas with better weather. Even if you don’t have cloches you can have strawberries from early June in the south to the end of October, much longer than you used to be able to. The amount of space given over to strawberries is about half that given to all the other fruits put together, and especially popular are those which are good to freeze.

Soil and Planting Strawberries like a light, well-drained soil. A light soil will warm more quickly in spring and so the plants will come up quicker than in a heavy soil. If the soil is not well drained, work in some shingle and peat and dig in plenty of compost, decayed leaves and lawn mowings, and also some straw composted with an activator. Plenty of humus and plant food is the secret of success with strawberries. Your soil will also benefit from a previous cropping of potatoes; they make a good tilth.

If the soil is heavy and not well drained, you had better grow your strawberries in raised beds. Plant three rows, allowing about 60 cm/2 ft between them, and 40 cm/15 in between plants. When you grow strawberries in beds they are not often bothered by frost or drought (the foliage provides protection), they do not need strawing and little fruit is lost through soil splashing.

Plant on the flat in a light loam, spacing the plants in the same way. If planting between rows of gooseberries, plant a double row 40 cm/1 5 in apart and allow 50 cm/18 in between plants. Those in rows should be kept free of runners for the first two years, but then allow the runners to form the next year, removing them in September. Then make a new plantation and destroy the old — strawberries will only crop .well for about three years. After that make new plantings in fresh ground.

The plants in the raised beds can be allowed to form runners to fruit the next year. The beds are left down for two to three years before you remove them. Don’t use beds to plant those which make a lot of leaf – there might be risk of an outbreak of mildew if the plants are close together. The exception to this rule is the variety ‘Cambridge Early Pine’, which is resistant to mildew.

When you grow strawberries, buy ‘runners’ from one-year plants. These are called ‘maidens’. The most vigorous are those which have formed first (those which are nearest the parent plant). They are detached with scissors or secateurs and planted as soon as possible. If you have room, keep several one-year plants solely for this purpose and don’t allow them to form fruit. Six plants will give about fifty runners, rooted around the parent plants, and they are easy enough to pull up.

If you are planting in early autumn, the soil will usually be in a friable condition. But never plant in wet, sticky ground or when there is frost in the soil. Use a blunt-nosed trowel and make the rows run north/south to get an even shine of sun. Spread out the fibrous roots – plants will never grow well with their roots bunched together. Do not plant too deeply: strawberries are shallow-rooting and grow better in shallow soils if top dressed. Use a garden line to make sure of the spacing — you need room for the plants to develop and for yourself to get the hoe between the rows without touching the plants.

Plant firmly, treading in the plants. If frost comes soon afterwards, tread in any loose plants once the soil is friable again. In a dry autumn, water the plants in and give further waterings until they are well established.

By the end of April, under normal conditions, plants of early fruiting varieties will form blossom – a hard frost at this time would blacken it and put paid to any crop for that year, except for frost-resistant varieties. So plant a row of each of four or five varieties with different flowering and fruiting times. That way you spread the risk and some varieties will escape altogether. Soon after the blossom has set, the plants need a good mulch.


May and June are usually the driest months, so at this time while the fruit is swelling give the plants some extra water if necessary. Water them frequently, in the evening, and give them a good soaking so that the moisture can penetrate to the roots during the night. Unless the ground is rich in moisture- retaining humus, the fruits would otherwise not swell much and would ripen hard and seedy.

When the fruit is beginning to turn red, stop watering for a day or two, until the ripe fruit is removed. Then water again if the soil is dry. In this way, the fruit will be dry when gathered and will freeze better, while the berries will keep their shape if used fresh.

After fruiting, clear the ground of any straw you used, and burn or compost it, to dig back later. If peat was used, it soon mixes in with the soil and improves the humus content of the soil and its texture. As the foliage dies back in autumn, remove it with shears and burn it. The new foliage will grow from the crown of the plant the following spring. Then give the plants a 30 gm per sq m/1 oz per sq yd dressing of sulphate of ammonia between the rows a month later. When the blossom comes, mulch between the rows and you will have an even bigger crop from the second-year plants. They should crop for at least three seasons, maybe four if you look after them.

Early fruit, from the beginning of May, can be enjoyed if you cover the earlier varieties (or some of them) with cloches. Glass barn type cloches or continuous cloches of pvc sheeting are good – both cover the ground 60 cm/ 2 ft in width and so the foliage is not too crowded. If it were mildew would be likely to occur. Otherwise try mildew-resistant varieties or those with not much leaf. Only second- and third-year plants should be covered with cloches, but not till the beginning of March. Strawberries are hardy plants and need the winter months to get a good soaking and recover from the heavy cropping of the previous summer. Give the plants a teaspoonful of sulphate of potash each before you put the cloches over. Also dust the new foliage with flowers of sulphur to prevent mildew. If the soil is dry, give it a soaking around the plants.

In mid-March, the sun will be getting stronger and the plants will need ventilation on warm days, so raise a cloche or two along the row during daytime to let some more air in. Put it back before evening though. In March, the plants will need protection from the cold winds. By April, leave off the cloches on all warm days and so the plants can enjoy some showery weather. They will soon be in bloom and to uncover them when it is safe will help with their fertilization. But be sure to keep them covered if there are cold winds about. And also when the fruit begins to set. Take care not to splash soil on to the fruits and foliage. Replace the cloches as soon as surplus moisture has dried off the foliage. By May the first fruits will be ready to pick and you had better look over the plants every other day, removing the cloches to pick the fruit or to water. When cropping finishes, remove the cloches and mulch the plants heavily, also keeping them well watered through summer.


Raspberries are our chief provider of soft fruit after the main strawberry crop is over, possessing a unique flavour. The fruits freeze well and make good jam, though few people bother with jam now that freezers are so popular.

Once planted, a well looked after plot of raspberries will serve you well for many years. No hardy plant bears more fruit for the amount of garden space it occupies.

The raspberry flowers later than the strawberry, so most varieties miss the late frosts, but the canes should be protected from cold winds if the garden is exposed. You can do this by erecting interwoven fencing around the fruit and vegetable garden or by planting a hedge of x Cupressus leylandii, spacing the plants 60 cm/2 ft apart; in two years they will have reached 1 -8 m/6 ft. Strong winds blowing directly on the raspberries may otherwise break the canes.

Plant raspberries along one side or at one end of the fruit garden, preferably with the cane rows oriented north/ south to get an even ripening of fruit.

Soil and Planting The raspberry likes soil that can hold the summer moisture but is also well-drained in winter. A heavy loam is ideal and if the soil is light and sandy, add plenty of humus in autumn before planting. It is important to plant in clean ground because it is impossible to do this later without disturbing the fibrous roots growing out to a considerable distance. So do not cultivate too near the canes when hoeing between the rows.

Plant the canes early November before hard frosts come. At that time the soil will still be warm and friable and the canes will be well established by winter. Planting can be done till March but not if the soil is wet or sticky after snow, or if there is frost in it. Always buy Certified stock passed by the Ministry of Agriculture as free from ‘mosaic’, a disease which will cause stunted canes. Buy the canes from a reliable source and remember that an initial payment for good stock will be worthwhile in the long run.

The canes are planted 46 cm/16- in apart in the rows, depending on how vigorous the variety is: ‘Mailing Promise’ should be planted 50 cm/20 in apart. It is usual to allow the same distance between rows as the height of the plants: this is about 1 -5 m/5 ft for most and 1-8 m/6 ft for ‘Mailing Exploit’, ‘Mailing Promise’ and ‘Norfolk Giant’. They should be no deeper than 7-5 cm/ 3 in – planting deeper than necessary is the most common cause of failure.

Make the canes firm by treading and after a few days, cut back to within 20 cm/8 in of soil level. This will mean that there will be no fruit the first season.


Early in spring, drive strong stakes well into the ground at intervals of 2-4 m/8 ft and fasten galvanized wires to the top about 36 cm/15 in above ground at 36 cm/15 in intervals. The stakes should be about 1 -8 m/6 ft high. As the canes continue to grow all summer, tie them in to the top so that winds cannot break the canes. Space the canes out as evenly as possible and tie in with twine, which you cut away when the old canes are cut out in autumn.

During summer, early June is best, the plants will need a good mulch of decayed manure or compost, with some extra peat. This will help keep the moisture in the soil and stop weeds. Put it right near the plants to a depth of 7-5-10 cm/3-4 in. Give the rows a good soaking in the evenings and spray the foliage often against red spider.

In November, after fruiting (and the canes produced one year will fruit the next), the old canes are cut out to 2-5 cm/1 in above soil level. Burn the old canes and as they are removed, cut out any weakly new canes, leaving six to eight strong ones to each ‘stool’, as raspberry roots are called.

With autumn-fruiting varieties, the canes are left until early March and cut back to 2-5 cm/1 in of soil level, for it is on the same year’s canes that the fruit comes. As these varieties have to produce new canes and bear fruit at the same time, they need heavy dressings of farmyard manure or poultry manure, plus some peat and lawn mowings given in June and again in August. Raspberries are gathered just before the fruit is fully ripe. The berries are then firm but not hard and in no way ‘mushy’.


This is a fruit that is at its best in a cold climate where the slow ripening brings out the subtle flavour. The fruits will hang on the bushes for several weeks and so may be used when slightly under ripe for culinary purposes and when fully ripe for dessert. They also bottle and freeze well.

Soil and Planting Gooseberries prefer a light, well-drained soil, well supplied with humus. Work in some peat and garden compost or small quantities of farmyard manure. They also love potash – this is given in the form of wood ash stored dry or sulphate of potash.

Because gooseberries do not like having their roots disturbed and send out their fibrous roots a good distance from the plant, it is essential to plant in clean ground. If weeds are competing with the gooseberries, the fruit will be poor. Do not hoe too near to the fruit in case you damage the roots. Leave a distance of 36 cm/15 in from the main stem or leg’. A mulch of peat or compost will keep the weeds down.

Gooseberries may be planted at any time during winter, though November is the best time as the plants will be well established before the frosts. The planting distances depend on variety, but those of upright habit should be spaced 1-2 m/4 ft apart, those of spreading habit 1 -5—1 -8 m/5—6 ft apart each way. Some varieties never make large plants: ‘Bedford Red’ and ‘Langley Gage’ retain their compact habit and are ideal for the small garden. ‘Lancashire Lad’ and ‘Crown Bob’ make large spreading bushes and crop heavily so they are best for the commercial growers.

As gooseberries can tolerate partial shade, they may be planted between young orchard trees or between rows of raspberries, and strawberries may be grown for several years between the gooseberries until the gooseberries grow too large.

Single cordons are planted 60 cm/ 2 ft apart and double cordons twice that.


Where top quality dessert fruit is wanted, cut back all wood to about two-thirds of its growth each winter, or to about 7-5 cm/3 in of the new season’s wood. This way the plant will make large fruit rather than form long shoots. If you grow the gooseberries as cordons on wires, as with cordon apples, prune or pinch back the shoots to within 7-5-10 cm/3-4 in of their base, in March or April.

For cooking varieties, the only pruning to do is to cut out dead wood as it forms, once the plants are five or six years old. The varieties with drooping habit are cut back to an upwards bud to counteract this tendency; and those with upright habit are cut to an outwards-pointing bud.

Gooseberries are best grown on a leg’ to stop suckers forming. If you raise plants from cuttings, use only new wood (light coloured) and remove the shoots when they are about 23 cm/ 9 in long. Remove all but the top three buds so that the plant will have a good leg’.

A single cordon is obtained by cutting back lateral shoots to a single bud and growing on the extension shoot until the plant is about 1-2 m/4 ft tall. Grow the cordons against wires, which may be fixed along the side of the path where they take up little room. Plant them at an oblique angle to restrict the flow of sap. Pinch back new growth formed during summer to within 5 cm/ 2 in of the main stem, in August.

As for double cordons, cut back the main stem to two buds about 20 cm/ 8 in above soil level, each facing in opposite directions. The shoots which form from the buds must be tied to the wires at 45°, then horizontally.

When the shoots have grown about 30 cm/12 in, cut them back to an upwards bud and grow them on in a vertical direction to as high as you like. At the end of summer pinch back the newly formed growth of each shoot to about 5 cm/2 in of the main stem just as with single cordons. Redcurrants can be grown in the same way and they too are grown on a ‘leg’.

Gooseberries ripen yellow, green, white or red, the earliest in May, the latest early August.


Blackcurrants, never as popular as gooseberries, need exactly the opposite conditions and more work. Whereas gooseberries are thrivers in a cold, moist climate such as that of the midlands or the north, being frost hardy and tolerant of cold winds, the blackcurrants prefer the warmth of the south or of East Anglia.

Select as sheltered a position as possible for them, and if cold winds threaten to blow, plant them near a hedge of hardy blackberries. Gooseberries are happy in partial shade but blackcurrants need an open, sunny situation.

Soil and Planting Plant growth is from suckers under the ground – blackcurrants are not grown on a leg. The stems are produced from buds below soil level and the fruit is borne along the whole length of the canes, which grow about 1-2 m/4 ft tall. It is important that you do not damage the underground buds so do not hoe too near the plants. You need to encourage the new wood to form and blackcurrants need a long growing season which is not possible in the north. They also need a soil with plenty of moisture-holding humus and nitrogenous manures to help plant growth.

The plants are deep rooting and so a lot of humus must be dug in to a depth of at least 50 cm/20 in. Where there is enough humus, give the plants a 30 gm per sq m/1 oz per sq yd dressing of nitro-chalk in April, during showery weather, and again in early autumn after the old wood is cut out and burnt. A second dressing of nitro-chalk at this time, provided there is plenty of humus in the soil, has proved to increase the next year’s yield a good deal.

Planting is deeper than for most soft fruits: 1 5 cm/6 in. Do it any time from November to March, preferably March if the land is not well drained. Tread the plants in firmly and make sure to plant when the soil is friable and not frosty.


In early March cut back all wood to about 7-8 cm/3 in of soil level. This will stimulate the underground buds into growth and a bushy plant will be quickly built up. At the same time tread in any plants lifted from the ground by frost.

Established plants will not bear fruit the first year. You will not need to prune until they have been growing for at least three years. Afterwards, cut out any dead wood or, where the plants are overcrowded, cut almost to the base. Also, any overlong shoots may be cut back.


They are not seen as often as they once were: they are grown on a ‘leg’ like gooseberries so are not so heavy cropping and the scarlet fruits attract birds so that you need to cover the plants with muslin. On the other hand, they have the advantages of cropping for at least thirty years and not being troubled by pests and diseases as much as many fruits.

Soil and Planting Redcurrants like the same soil conditions as the gooseberry and are usually grown along with them, one here and there among the rows of gooseberries. A light, deeply dug soil with plenty of humus rather than nitrogenous manures suits them best.

Plant in November or December before the hard frosts, setting the plants about 1 -2 m/4 ft apart. Before planting, remove any roots which may have formed up the stem or ‘leg’ and which might cause suckers to form if they were left. Plant them among the gooseberries for protection or at least somewhere well sheltered from cold winds. Plant firmly.


Redcurrants do not need much pruning, for, like gooseberries, they bear fruit both on the old and new wood. New shoots are cut back to within 7-8 cm/3 in of the base to encourage fruit buds and get good-sized berries. This is done early in spring so that the energy of the plant will go to forming good fruit whilst at the same time a compact head will be built up. In later years, cut out any dead wood and any branches which look weak and spindly.

Redcurrants may also be grown as single or double cordons, against a sunny wall or alongside a path. But they must be sheltered from cold winds, and be in full, open sun. Plant single cordons 50 cm/20 in apart, at an oblique angle, tied in to wires. Plant double cordons 1 m/3 ft apart, with the shoots on either side the ‘leg’ grown upright. Small pieces of tin on the wires will jangle in the breeze and scare off birds.

Blackberries and Hybrid Berries

These are the last of the soft fruits in the season, ripening throughout the autumn and into November. They have several advantages. They are the hardiest of all soft fruits, not troubled by frost or cold winds in the slightest. They may even be planted as a wind-break along the windiest side of the garden to protect other fruits. Blackberries and many hybrid berries freeze well and so there is not the fear of wasting any. The introduction of thornless varieties is giving them extra popularity these days. They may be planted against a sunless wall where few other fruits would do well, with the long arching shoots or branches tied in to a trellis or wires. Or they may be used to cover a trellis or rustic fencing that divides one part of the garden from another or hides a dustbin corner.

Soil and Planting Plant them in rows, allowing 1-5 m/5 ft between each; between plants 3 m/10 ft if they are vigorous varieties, 2-4 m/8 ft otherwise. Where possible, plant the thorn-less varieties to save your hands.

Another way to grow them is against poles which stand about 2 m/6-7 ft above the ground, with about 1 m/3 ft buried in the ground. Blackberries may be planted between rows of gooseberries and loganberries with blackcurrants – the shoots are grown perpendicularly and tied to the poles like climbing roses. About every three years, untie the shoots and allow them to fall to the ground; cut back any dead wood and then tie them up again. If loganberries are grown in this way, the old wood must be removed each year in November, for they fruit only on the new season’s wood. Blackberries and nitrogenous manures to help them produce a lot of new cane growth each year. This you can give as shoddy, farmyard manure, poultry manure or a garden compost. Blackberries do not need to make so much new wood, only enough the keep a balance between the old and the new. blackberry hybrids crop both on the old and new wood, and bear prolifically, but the plants will be healthier and bear heavier crops if you keep them free of too much old wood.

Loganberries and berries of loganberry parentage need large amounts of

The time to prepare the ground and plant is November to December, usually before hard frost. Then the plants will be settled before they begin to make new growth. But you can plant any time until mid-March so long as the ground is frost free.


Mulching is important. In a dry summer it will enable the plants to produce an extra pound of fruit or more and at the same time plenty of new wood. Blackberries form many of their roots just below the surface of the soil, and if shaded from the sun by the mulch, will be kept moist and make healthy growth for thirty years or more. The use of mulch will almost do away with the need to water artificially, though the plants will appreciate the occasional spraying in hot dry weather. And watering with dilute liquid manure every fortnight will increase the weight and quality of the fruit. Before mulching, give the plants 30 gm/1 oz of sulphate of potash raked into the surface of the soil; in April showers is the best time.

Take care not to hoe too near the plants as they send out their surface roots to at least 60 cm/2 ft. Rely on mulching close to the plants to keep down the weeds.

Like raspberries, blackberries and the hybrid berries do not like to be planted deeply. Plant only just beneath the surface of the soil so that the roots are just covered, but make firm by treading in. The posts to which the wires will be fastened at intervals of 46 cm/18 in from the bottom, or the poles, should have been creosoted on the parts that will be below the soil level, and should be in position before planting so that the roots are not disturbed.

Cut back the stems to within 1 5 cm/ 6 in of soil level after planting, to stimulate the plants to form new wood during their first year, tying in the shoots as they form. Tie blackberries to the wires horizontally, but loganberries (which produce their arching stems almost upright) are tied to the wires fan-like rather than horizontally. If any attempt were made to bend them, they would snap.

Loganberries need the same pruning as raspberries; cut out the old shoots in November, after fruiting, to 7-5 cm/3 in of the base. The new shoots are tied in as they form during summer.

Loganberries fruit at the same time as raspberries, the first of the hybrid berries to fruit. They crop until the end of August, when the first blackberries are ripe.

Fruit Varieties

Early ‘Cambridge Early Pine’. ‘Cambridge Premier’. ‘Cambridge Regent’. ‘Hative de Caen’

Second Early ‘Cambridge Favourite’. ‘Cambridge Rival’. ‘Cambridge Vigour’

Mid-season ‘Cambridge Sentry’. ‘Red Gauntlet’, ‘Royal Sovereign’, ‘Souvenir de Charles Machiroex’

Late ‘Cambridge Late Pine’. ‘Cambridge Rearguard’. ‘Fenland Wonder’, ‘Montrose’. Talisman’

Autumn-fruiting ‘Gento’. ‘Hampshire Maid’, ‘La Sans Rivale’, ‘St Claude’

Early ‘Lloyd George’, ‘Mailing Exploit’. ‘Mailing Promise’. ‘Royal Scot’

Mid-season ‘Glen Clova’. ‘Mailing Enterprise’, ‘Mailing Jewel’, ‘Mailing Notable’. ‘Pyne’s Royal’

Late ‘Amber Queen’. ‘Golden Everest’, ‘Mailing Admiral’. ‘Mailing Landmark’. Norfolk Giant’

Autumn-fruiting ‘Fallgold’, ‘November Abundance’, ‘September’, ‘Zeva’

Early ‘Bedford Red’. ‘Broom Girl’, ‘Early Sulphur’. ‘Keepsake’. ‘Langley Gage’. ‘May Duke’, ‘Whitesmith’

Mid-season ‘Bedford Yellow’, ‘Careless’, ‘Cousen’s Seedling’. ‘Dan’s Mistake’. ‘Green Overall’. ‘Gunner’. ‘Laxton’s Amber’. ‘Leveller’, ‘Shiner’. Thumper’

Late ‘Drill’, ‘Howard’s Lancer’, ‘Lancashire Lad’, ‘Rifleman’. Thatcher’, ‘Whinham’s Industry’. ‘White Lion’. ‘White Transparent’

Early ‘Boskoop Giant’. ‘Laxton’s Giant’, ‘Mendip Cross’. ‘Wellington XXX’

Mid-season ‘Blacksmith’. ‘Seabrook’s Black’. Tenah’. ‘Westwick Triumph’

Late ‘Amos Black’, ‘Baldwin’, ‘Cotswold Cross’

Early ‘Fay’s Prolific’, ‘Jonkheer Van Tets’. ‘Laxton’s No. 1’ Mid-season ‘Houghton Castle’, ‘Red Lake’ Late ‘Wilson’s Long Bunch’

Early ‘Bedford Giant’. ‘Merton Early’

Mid-season ‘Ashton Cross’, ‘Himalaya Giant’. ‘Oregon Thomless’

Late ‘John Innes’

Boysenberry, Japanese wineberry, Laxtonberry. Loganberry, Lowberry, Youngberry