Shaping in knitting is often done by increasing or decreasing the number of stitches in use.
Simple increasing This is most easily worked in a knit stitch row, although it may be applied to purling. To make one extra stitch, knit into a stitch on the left-hand needle as usual but do not drop the loop. Insert the right-hand needle into the back of it and knit it again.
Multiple increasing This may be necessary at the beginning of a row. Simply cast on the required number of extra stitches, work back across them and continue on the old stitches to the end of the row.
Simple decreasing These methods may be worked at any point in a row. Because they form a slanting effect, choose the method to produce a slant in the desired direction to give a balanced effect on the garment.
To make a decrease which slants to the left on the right side in stocking stitch, slip the next stitch to be worked from the left-hand needle onto the right-hand needle without knitting it. Knit the next stitch, then, using the point of the left-hand needle, lift the slipped stitch over it and off the right-hand needle.
To make a decrease which slants to the right, simply insert the needle through the next two stitches and knit or purl them as if they were one.
Embroidery Simple motifs, worked in embroidery stitches, such as blanket stitch, chain stitch or cross stitch, can be used most effectively to embellish plain knitting. Add them in yarn of similar type after the knitting is complete.