The kind of scam depends on the material, but for ordinary purposes the following are the most common in use:
Run and fell seam
Turn one straight edge of a piece of material over one-eighth to a quarter of an inch, then place the straight edge of another piece below the folded edge, and run the two pieces together about one-eighth to a quarter of an inch below. When the end is reached, flatten the seam by folding the turned-in edge over, and to make it lie flat run the thumb-nail along, and if necessary to prevent it slipping, phi or lightly tack through the four thicknesses before com-mencing to hem the folded edge.
Flannel can be seamed with running stitch, but the edges of the flannel must not be turned in or they will be too bulky; flannel is always herring-boned, as already described. If it is a closed seam, however, the edge that is hidden must be cub narrower, so that the top edge will he as flat as possible under the herring-boning.
Unliko the other kind of seam, a French seam is commenced with the edges placed even and the material the right side out. Running stitch is used to join the two pieces together one-eighth to a quarter of an inch belo.v, the narrower the turning the better for this kind of double seam. Turn the work to bring the wrong side uppermost, anl the cut edges inside. Run the material together again, taking the needle through just far enough below the cut edges to make sure that they are enclosed. Whon finishod the double seam will be on the inside, and merely a row of oven littla stitches on the right side.
The edges are kept even and the two pieces joined with running stitch, or back-stitching if a very strong seam is required. When finished the seam is pressed open and the cut edges
Btitehed down to the material by running stitch or back-stitching to make a row of stitching on the right side, either side of the seam.
Stitch the pieces together, then fold the turnings over together to one side, tack down, then stitch them through from the right side of the material to make one row of stitching at the side of the seam.
When a curved edge is seamed, the turnings must be snipped to within one-eighth to a quarter of an inch from the stitching to allow the seam to set properly, and also prevent the edges from fraying.
If a half-inch lapped seam is required, turn the edge that width, plus one-eighth for turnings, and tack or pin this folded edge over a straight edge one-eighth to a quarter of an inch above it, then stitch through the three thicknesses, leaving the folded or lapped edge free. Such a seam is used on firm materials when making heavy coats or dresses.
When a seam is to be strapped, it is ma-do on the right side, pressed open, with the turnings cut very closely, then the strap, with edges turned in, is sewn immediately over the turnings, the stitches being taken through to the wrong side of the garment. When a repair has been made it is often possible to hide it by using strapping as a trimming.
To neat en cut edges
Most of the materials used for the making of clothing are inclined to fray when the cut edges are left unsown. There are various ways of preventing fraying.
When material is very thin or thick, the cut edges can be pinked, or closely snipped, to prevent fra ing. The seam is then pressed open.
After turning the edge under, stitch by machine, or if by hand use back-stitching, then press the seam open by passing the stitching of the seam only over the edge of the iron. To press flat would cause a mark of the edges to be seen on the right side.
When material is too stiff or thick to be hemmed, it can be bound with ribbon or sarcenet binding. Make a crease down the exact centre of the binding, place the raw edge inside, and stitch both edges of the bind and the material between together.
Oversewing is the quickest form of neatening, but not quite so durable as the other methods described.
Buttonhole or blanket stitching can also be adopted for the purpose of securing the edge of a piece of material that is cut.