Rootstocks for Apples

M.9 Most dwarfing of all. A good stock for cordons and dwarf bushes. Usually too dwarfing for espaliers and pyramids.

M.26 Less dwarfing than M.9. For small espaliers, dwarf pyramids and for cordons and dwarf bushes where soil is not rich.

M.7 and MM.106 Semi-dwarfing, producing trees of moderate size on good soil, often used for pyramids. Will produce dwarf trees on poorish soil. Recommended for cordons or varieties which do not spur freely.

M.2 and MM.111 Vigorous stocks which make big trees on good soil. May be used for espaliers where there is plenty of space and good for cordons and pyramids where the soil is definitely poor.

Notes: The letters refer to the research stations originally responsible for them. M=Malling; MM=Malling-Merton.. If, in a catalogue, a rootstock number is followed by the letter ‘A’, it means that the stock is from virus-tested material.

Rootstocks for Apples

Apples for Every Season

  • July—August: Emneth Early (2) C, B-B; Scarlet Pimpernel (1) D.
  • July—October: Arthur Turner (2) C.
  • August: George Cave (2) D.
  • August—September: Epicure (3) D, F; Tydeman’s Early Worcester (3) D.
  • August—October: George Neal (2) D-P, F.
  • August—November: Rev. W. Wilks (2) C, B-B.
  • September—October: Ellison’s Orange (4) D, B-B; James Grieve (3) D.
  • September—November: Lord Lambourne (2) D.
  • September—January : Golden Noble (4) C, F.
  • October—December: Egremont Russet (2) D, F; Sunset (3) D, F.
  • November—January: Cox’s Orange Pippin D, F; Holstein (3) D, F, T; Ribston Pippin (2) D, F, T.
  • November—February: Golden Delicious (4) D; Laxton’s Superb (4) D, F, B-B.
  • November—April: Newton Wonder (5) D-P, F; !dared (3) D-P.
  • December—February: Crispin (4) D, T; Orleans Reinette (4) D, F.
  • December—March: Boston Russet (1)0; Crawley Beauty (6 but self-fertile), C.
  • December—April: Edward VII (5) C.
  • December—May: Ontario (3) C, B-B.
  • December—June: Annie Elizabeth (5) C.
  • January—April: Duke of Devonshire (4) D, F; Winston (5) D.
  • January—May: Tydeman’s Late Orange (3) D, F, B-B.


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) These figures indicate flowering time. Another variety in the same group is likely to be the best pollinator but a few blossoms from one group may well overlap the adjoining group.

C= Cooker;

D= Dessert;


F= Recommended for fine flavour;

B-B= Biennial bearer (this unfortunate habit can sometimes be corrected by drastic blossom thinning in the good years).

T=Triploid (such varieties will not pollinate others and it is necessary to plant two other non-triploid diploid, varieties in the same flowering group, one to pollinate the triploid, the other to fertilize the pollinator). Note that Cox’s Orange Pippin will not pollinate Holstein, and Golden Delicious will not pollinate Crispin.

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