Recommended Trees and Shrubs For Foundation Planting

Abutilon Some abutilons are only suitable for greenhouse cultivation in Britain, or for use as temporary fillers in summer beds from which they will be removed to the greenhouse in autumn. But two kinds can be regarded as foundation plants in the milder parts of the country, near the coast, for example, and in the West and South-west. One is a tall shrub with upright branches. Soft greenish-grey leaves and pale mauve flowers in late spring and early summer. It is known as Abutilon vitifolium, the vine-leaved abutilon, from the shape of its leaves and will quickly reach a height of 10 to 12 ft (3 to 4m). It is not, as a rule, very long lived. The other, A. megapotamicum, the Brazilian abutilon, is a very different plant with thin, rather sprawling stems (it can be trained against a wall or fence if desired) and drooping crimson and yellow flowers in late summer.

Both these shrubs are deciduous and both like sunny places and prefer light, well-drained soils. They can be increased by seed in spring and, in some favourable places, A. vit [folium will regenerate itself from seed scattered naturally around the plant in autumn and germinating freely the following spring. Both can also be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in spring. Summer or early autumn.

Pruning, to rid the plants of winter-damaged growth, to restrict their size and keep them well balanced, should be done in mid-spring.

Acer (Maple, sycamore) There are maples so small as to be little more than big bushes, and some so large that they are forest trees. All are deciduous and nearly all those that are planted in gardens are grown primarily for the beauty of their leaves, usually deeply lobed and often turning to brilliant shades of crimson, orange and yellow before they fall in the autumn. Best for the small garden are the Japanese maples, varieties of Acerpalmatum and A.japonicum. These are shrubs or small trees, 8 to 12 ft (2-5 to 4m) high, and in some varieties the leaves are sc freely and deeply divided as to be almost fern like. They colour well in autumn.

Acer negundo variegatum is a useful tree of medium size, about 20 ft (6 m) high, with light green leaves heavily variegated with white. It does well in towns.

The sycamore, A. pseudoplatanus, and the Norway maple, A.platanoides, are large, fast-growing trees that will soon reach 30 or 40 ft (9 to 12 m). The sycamore often produces seedlings so freely that it becomes a nuisance, but it has an attractive variety, brilliantissimum, with pink and gold young leaves in spring that is slow growing. A. platanoides Goldsworth Purple and Crimson King have shining beetroot-purple leaves.

The snake-bark maples, A. hersii, A. capilllpes and A.davidii, are trees of medium size grown primarily for their green bark striped with white, and A. griseum is grown for its peeling cinnamon-coloured bark.

All will thrive in ordinary soils and sunny or shady places but the Japanese maples require good drainage and may die if the soil remains very wet in winter.

Almond The common almond is a member of the primus family, which also includes the peach, nectarine, plum and cherry, and its botanical name is Primusamygdalus. It is one of the loveliest of early spring-flowering trees, making a rounded shapely head of branches, and averaging 15 to 20ft (4-5 to 6m) in height. It can be kept smaller by a little thinning and shortening of long branches immediately after flowering.

The almond is deciduous and will grow in practically any soil that is not liable to become waterlogged in winter. It does particularly well on chalky soils and it likes a sunny position. It can be raised from seeds (the stones in the fruits) sown in spring either outdoors or in a frame Nurserymen usually graft or bud it on to plum stocks to save time. It is a fast-growing tree, soon making its effect in the garden.

Amelanchier (Snowy mespilus) These are spring-flowering trees of moderate size well suited for planting in gardens, yet seldom seen. The flowers are white, small but very numerous, so that when a tree is in flower it is like a white cloud. In autumn the leaves turn orange scarlet before they fall. The best kind is Amelanchier laevis, which makes a round-headed tree eventually 20 to 25 ft (6 to 8 m) high, but it may take many years to reach that size. It flowers in spring and will thrive in any ordinary soil and open, sunny position. No pruning is required, but if a tree does get too big its branches can be thinned and shortened in autumn.

If suckers appear from the base of the trunk or direct from the roots they should be removed. Nurserymen usually graft it on to seedlings of mountain ash and suckers from such trees will be of mountain ash, not of snowy mespilus. But if trees have been raised from seed, which germinates readily if sown in spring, the suckers will be of snowy mcspilus and can be dug up with roots in autumn or winter and replanted.

Apple, Crab A number of crab apples are very handsome flowering trees of moderate size. All are botanically known as Mains. Some such as the red crab (A/, lemoinet), with deep carmine flowers, the purple crab (M. purpurea), which is an even darker crimson and the Japanese crab (M. flori-bunda), a lovely apple-blossom pink, are grown principally for their flowers; others such as Golden Hornet with small yellow apples, John Downie with small egg-shaped yellow and red crab apples, and Dartmouth with large rounder, redder fruits, are grown mainly for their abundant and highly coloured fruits, but these, too, haveattractive white and pink blossom. All flower in spring. All are hardy, easily grown trees thriving in almost any soil and liking best an open. Sunny position. Most will eventually reach a height of 25 ft (8 m) if left to their own devices, though M.floribunda rarely exceeds 15 ft (4.5 m) even after many years. All can be kept smaller by a little thinning and shortening of long branches in winter. Some can be raised from seed sown in spring, but this is a slow process and there is likely to be some variation in the seedlings, so the usual method of increase is by budding in summer on to apple stock.

Arborvitae, see Thuja

Artemisia (Southernwood, lad’s love) These are grey-leaved plants, most of which are more suitable for the border or rock garden than for foundation planting. But one, by reason of its size and character, is truly a foundation plant. This is Artemisia abrota-num, a shrub 4 ft (1.25 m) high, with very finely divided grey-green leaves which have an aromatic scent when bruised.

It likes sunny places and light, well-drained soils. It can be pruned every March to keep it neat and bushy; indeed it can be clipped again in July if it is being used to make a little hedge or a shaped specimen.

Artemisia abrotanum is easily increased by cuttings of firm young growth in summer or of more mature growth in autumn.

Azalea Botanists regard azaleas as no more than a particular section of the rhododendron family, and some nurserymen follow this lead and list azaleas as rhododendrons. But most keep them separate and they have such a very distinct decorative value in the garden that this seems entirely sensible.

Like rhododendrons, azaleas dislike lime and thrive in acid soils. They will grow in full sun or partial shade, but if the shade is too dense they may not flower freely.

There are two big divisions in azaleas, the evergreen varieties and the deciduous varieties, and the evergreens are further subdivided into two groups, one of which. Usually referred to as Indian azaleas, is only suitable for greenhouse cultivation in Britain, whereas the other group, which includes the popular Kurume, Kaempfcri and Glenn Dale azaleas, is sufficiently hardy to be grown outdoors in most parts of Britain. There is, however, a difference in hardiness between varieties, and as there are far too many varieties to describe here, this is a point worth keeping in mind when ordering. Nurserymen should be able to give the necessary information as to the relative hardiness of the varieties they offer.

The Kurume azaleas are evergreen and hardy and they produce great quantities of small flowers in spring. Most do not grow more than 3 ft (1 m) high, though some with age may reach 5 ft (15 m), but all are spreading shrubs which may easily become 5 ft (15m) wide in time. They have small leaves and flowers of many colours, white, mauve, lilac, pink, rose, carmine, and scarlet. The Kaempferi and Glenn Dale hybrids in general have larger flowers.

The deciduous azaleas mostly flower in late spring and make bigger, more open bushes, 4 to 8 ft (1 25 to 25 m) high, but not usually quite as much through. The flowers are much larger, often in brilliant shades of orange, yellow and coppery red with a wide selection in the pink to crimson range as well. They are among the most brilliant and free-flowering shrubs of their season and some, particularly the yellow Azalea lutea, have a rich spicy fragrance as well. Yet another bonus from some varieties (and here again A. lutea is outstanding) is yellow and crimson foliage colour in autumn before the leaves drop.

The evergreen azaleas can be raised from cuttings of firm young shoots in summer and so can the deciduous kinds, though they are more difficult. Usually they are raised from seed sown in sand and peat in a frame or greenhouse in spring, but it is three or four years before the seedlings will start to flower and they are certain to vary considerably in colour so it is much better to start with sturdy plants selected for the suitability of their colour for the purpose in mind.

Bachelor’s buttons, see Kerria

Bamboo These belong to numerous different genera and, as their names are confused, it is sometimes not easy to identify the different species with accuracy in nursery cata-logues. All are elegant plants which will grow in most soils but look particularly well near water. They differ greatly in size and some kinds spread rather rapidly by underground stems. All can be increased by division in spring or by chopping out rooted suckers.

The most frequently planted kind is Arundinaria japonica (often called Bambusa metake), 10 to 12 ft (3 to 4 m) high with fairly large leaves. A. nitida does not spread so much and is more elegant in leaf. A. fastuosa is one of the tallest kinds, up to 20ft (6m) high and A. viridistriata is a semi-dwarf, 3 to 4 ft (1 to 1 25 m) high with yellow-striped leaves. Phyllostachys nigra is known as the black bamboo because its canes become black as they age. It is up to 8ft (25m) high and it has a fine variety, Henonis, with deep yellow canes.

Barberry, see Berberis

Berberis (Barberry) This is a big family of shrubs including some highly decorative kinds. From a garden standpoint these may be divided into two very distinct groups: evergreens grown for their foliage and flowers, and deciduous kinds grown for their berries and, in some kinds, for their autumn foliage colour.

There are a great many deciduous barberries, almost all with red or crimson berries and some much alike. Typical of them, and an excellent garden plant, is Berberis wilsonae, which makes a dense, spiny bush about 3 ft (1 m) high with yellow flowers in summer followed by abundant crops of coral-red fruits. B. thunbergii has crimson fruits, not so numerous nor so decorative, but its leaves turn scarlet and crimson before they fall. The variety atro-purpurea has purple leaves all summer.

The two finest evergreen kinds are B. darwinii, which forms a big bush with small, holly-like leaves, and has clusters of small orange flowers in mid-spring, and B. stenophylla, an even larger, looser bush with arching branches, narrow leaves and sweetly fragrant yellow flowers a week or so later than B. darwinii. There are much smaller varieties of B. stenophylla such as gracilis and corallina. Medium-sized barberries include such species as B. candidula and B. verruculosa.

All these can be grown in almost any soil and open place. They can be increased by seed, but cuttings of firm young growth in summer in a propagating frame or under mist are to be preferred for specially selected varieties as there may be variation in seedlings. B. stenophylla often makes suckers, and these can be dug out with roots in autumn or early spring and used as new plants. B. darwinii does not much like root disturbance and nurserymen often grow it in pots so that it can be transplanted with its roots intact.

Pruning is not essential but the evergreen kinds can be trimmed without harm after flowering and are sometimes grown as hedges, for which purpose they are both suitable and beautiful if there is room for a fairly large hedge.

The mahonias are sometimes known as berberis, but are here dealt with as mahonia.

Betula (Birch) The silver birch, Betula pendula, is one of the few forest trees that can be planted even in fairly small gardens. In time it will grow 30 ft (9 m) high, but can be replaced long before that as it is cheap and easy to grow. The colour of the bark varies a lot so, when buying, be sure that a good white-stemmed tree is chosen. There are weeping forms which are even more decorative, the best being known as youngii. All will grow in almost any soil and place, but are particularly good on light soils. They are increased by seed in spring, or selected forms, such as the best weeping varieties, by grafting in spring on seedlings of common birch.

Birch, see Betula

Blue spiraea, see Caryopteris

Bridal wreath, see Spiraea

Broom, see Cytisus and Genista

Buckthorn, Sea, see Hippophae

Buddleia These are quick-growing deci-duous shrubs, the most popular and useful of which is Buddleia davidii. This is a loosely branched shrub, 7 to 10 ft (2 to 3 m) high, which carries long, cone-shaped spikes of small, purple, honey-scented flowers in late summer. An additional asset is that its flowers are attractive to butterflies, particularly the beautiful red admiral. It is a shrub that seeds very freely and seedlings often appear all over the place. They tend to be variable in flower colour, from quite a pale lavender to deep purple. Some kinds have been selected and named. Royal Red is a particularly fine purple. There are also several white-flowered varieties. All can be pruned hard each March, and this restricts their size and improves the quality of the flower spikes.

Another species is B. alternifolia, a more graceful but less showy shrub of similar height with slender arching stems wreathed in small lavender flowers in early summer. A third species, B. globosa, bears little globe-shaped clusters of orange flowers in early summer and is often known as the orange ball tree, but it is not quite so hardy as the others and likes a warm sheltered place. It will soon reach 8 or 10ft (25 to 3m) in height.

All are quick growing and will succeed in almost any soil, preferring those that are reasonably well drained. B. davidii thrives on chalk. All can be raised from seed sown under glass or outdoors in spring, but selected forms must be raised from cuttings because of the variability of seedlings. Cuttings of firm young growth root readily in summer in a propagating frame or under mist, and cuttings of riper growth taken in autumn will root in sandy soil in a sheltered place outdoors.

Calico bush, see Kalmia

Californian lilac, see Ceanothus

Calluna (Ling, Scottish heather) There is only one species, Calluna vulgaris, but it has produced numerous garden varieties. Typically the ling is a low-growing but slightly straggly plant, up to 3 ft (im) high and quite as much through, with small heather-pink flowers held close to the stem and produced in late summer and early autumn. More decorative for the garden are varieties with double flowers, such as H. E. Beale and Peter Sparkes. Others such as aurea, Golden Feather and Gold Haze have yellow leaves; alba is the white heather and/b.Y/7 is extremely dwarf. There are many more.

All need exactly the same treatment as the more numerous heathers belonging to the genus Erica. They like acid, peaty soils, and the taller kinds are all the better for being trimmed with shears each spring. They are increased by cuttings of firm young shoots in sandy peat in a frame in summer or by layering in spring.

Camellia Most of these beautiful evergreen shrubs are quite hardy but the flowers and flower buds, which come very early in the spring (even in winter in some kinds) are subject to frost injury. For this reason camellias are best planted in rather sheltered places such as in thin woodland or where they are protected by other shrubs or a wall. There are a great many garden varieties of Camellia japonica., the most commonly grown kind. The flowers of these vary greatly in form, some being single, some semi-double, some fully double and with petals arranged with such precision as to appear almost artificial. The colour range is from white and palest pink to deep red. There is a fine hybrid between C. japonica and C. saluenensis named C. williamsii, and there are selected garden varieties of this, including Donation with large, double bright pink flowers. One merit of C. williamsii is that the dead flowers usually drop off, whereas those of C. japonica tend to hang on, giving the bushes a rather untidy appearance.

All camellias eventually make big bushes 10 or 12ft (3 or 4m) high and through but they are rather slow growing and may take many years to reach anything like this, so they are really quite suitable for small gardens. All dislike lime in the soil and thrive in the same sort of slightly acid soils that suit rhododendrons, azaleas and heathers. They need no pruning but if they get too large they can be reduced after flowering or some branches in flower can be cut for home decoration. All can be increased by cuttings either of firm young shoots in summer or of well-developed leaves cut with a small portion of stem and a growth bud. Either type of cutting should be inserted in a mixture of equal parts sand and peat in a propagating frame or under mist, preferably with soil-warming cables to heat the rooting medium. Growing camellias in this way can be fun, but it takes a long time and it is better to start with well-grown bushes.

Caryopteris (Blue spiraea) Small shrubs with clusters of fluffy-looking blue flowers in late summer and early autumn. The kind commonly grown is named Caryopteris clandonensis. The stems are rather soft and often get damaged in winter but the plant usually sends up strong new growth from the base. It is, in any case, a good thing to prune all growth hard back each spring to within an inch or so of the woody steins at the base. This keeps the bushes dwarf and compact and improves the quality of the flowers. Treated in this way each bush will be about 3 ft (1 m) high and through by flowering time. Caryopteris likes sunny places and well-drained soils and can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth inserted in sandy soil in a frame in summer.

Catalpa (Indian bean tree) A fast-growing, rounded deciduous tree with large leaves and, in July and August, candelabra clusters of white flowers spotted with yellow and purple, the effect being rather like that of a horse chestnut. Its full name is Catalpa bignonioides and it has a yellow-leaved variety, aurea, which is a handsome foliage plant but does not flower so well.

Both kinds like good fertile soil and sunny places and do well in towns. A drawback is that they come into leaf late, usually not until the end of May, so they are bare for a good many months. The golden-leaved variety is often pruned each spring to keep it relatively small but increase the size of its leaves.

Ceanothus (Californian lilac) These lovely shrubs have no connection with the true lilac, despite their popular name which was presumably given because the small, usually blue flowers are produced in clusters which have a very superficial resemblance to those of a lilac, but on a much reduced scale. Some kinds are evergreen and these are all a little tender, benefiting from the shelter of a sunny wall except in very mild districts. One of the most popular of these is Ceanothus veitchianus, which has neat, shining green leaves and thimble-like heads of powder-blue flowers in late spring, but it is more tender than either C. thyrsiflorus, which is similar in colour, or C. impressus, which is a deeper blue. All will in time grow 12 to 15 ft (4 to 4-5 m) high against a wall, but can be kept smaller by pruning as soon as the flowers fade, when stems can be cut back as much as is necessary to keep the plants in shape.

There are also deciduous kinds that flower in late summer, and these are in general hardier and make fine bushes in the open. Good varieties are Gloire de Versailles, blue; Topaz, violet purple, and Perle Rose, pink. All these deciduous varieties benefit from pruning early each spring when all stems made during the previous year can be cut back to within 2 to 3 in (5 to 8 cm) of the older wood. Treated in this way the bushes will make strong new stems bearing flower sprays of greater size. The average height is 6 ft (2 m).

Both evergreen and deciduous kinds can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in summer in a propagating frame or under mist.

Cedar The botanical name of cedar is Cedrus and it is listed under this in many nursery catalogues. There are three principal kinds, the Atlas cedar, Cedrusatlantica, a broadly conical tree with branches held out more or less horizontally; the Himalayan deodar, C. deodara, more drooping in habit, and the cedar of Lebanon, C. libani, a slower-growing tree which becomes flat-topped with age. There is a variety of C. atlantica, named glauca, which is blue grey instead of green and this is even more popular for garden planting.

All are evergreen, will make big spreading trees and are spoiled by pruning, so are unsuitable as long-term plants for small gardens, but could be replaced after fifteen years or so. They will grow in any reasonable soil and open position. They can be raised from seed or selected garden forms by grafting.

Ceratostigma (Leadwort) The little shrub known as Ceratostigma willmottianum is a beauty for the front of a border, but as it often gets killed almost to ground level by frost in winter, many gardeners will regard it more as a herbaceous plant than as a shrub. Yet a shrub it is, as much as 3 ft (1111) high in favourable places, with a succession of blue flowers from mid-summer until the first frosts of autumn. It must have a sunny place and prefers well-drained soils. It can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in summer in a frame or under mist.

Chaenomeles (Japanese quince) This is the correct name for the showy, early spring-flowering shrubs that most gardeners call cydonia and some refer to as japonica. In the open they make densely branched spiny bushes 3 to 5 ft (1 to 15111) high and usually a good deal more through as they spread slowly by suckers. But more usually they are planted against walls or fences up which they are trained to a height of 6 to 7 ft (2 to 2-5111), all forward pointing shoots, which cannot conveniently be tied in, being cut back to an inch or so as soon as the flowers have faded. Alternatively, the tips of young shoots can be periodically pinched out throughout the summer to keep them short.

The form most commonly grown has scarlet flowers but there are numerous varieties differing in colour, in size of bloom and in habit. Excellent examples of these are Knap Hill Scarlet, very wide spreading; moerloesii, pale pink and spreading, and nivalis, white. All will grow in ordinary soil and a sunny or partially shady place.

Chamaecyparis, see Cypress

Cherry The ornamental cherries are all members of the genus Primus and in many nursery catalogues they are listed under that name. They are amongst the most beautiful of spring-flowering trees and one, Primus subhirtella autumnalis, will actually com-mence flowering in November. It has smaller flowers than most, white or shell pink, but they are produced in great numbers. It is however, the large-flowered Japanese cherries flowering in spring that make the greatest display. All produce their flowers in fine clusters, some being fully double, as in rose-pink Pink Perfection or pale pink Fugenzo; some single, as in pure white Tai-Kaku and Yoshino. They also vary greatly in habit, some being of shuttlecock form as in Kanzan, pink; others widely spreading, Shirofugen, light pink; some weeping, Cheat’s Weeping, deep pink; some narrowly erect, Amanogawa, light pink; some round headed, Ukon, pale lime yellow. Many cherries give fine autumn colour before the leaves fall and P. sargentii, soft pink flowers, is one of the most brilliant of these. One cherry. P. serrula, is cultivated exclusively for the beauty of its shining bark which is like highly polished mahogany.

Most of the foregoing are trees of small to moderate size from 12 to 25 ft (4 to 8 m) high, but the bird cherry. P. padus, is a much larger tree with numerous slender trails of small white flowers in late spring. It is a very attractive tree, but sometimes suffers severely from attacks by blackfly and is not really suitable for small gardens.

All cherries are deciduous, hardy and easy to grow. They will succeed in any reasonably good soil, but have a special liking for chalk and limestone. They will grow in full sun or partial shade. No regular pruning is required, nor is it desirable, but if trees get too big, branches can be shortened or removed as soon as the flowers have faded. Wounds should be painted with a tree wound dressing.

Cherries are increased by budding in summer on to various stocks, often seedlings of the wild British cherry (P. avium).

Chinionantiius (Winter sweet) Chimonanthus praecox is not one of the easiest of shrubs to grow, nor are its very pale yellow and maroon flowers, which are almost transparent in texture, at all showy, but they come in late winter and are intensely fragrant so that it is certainly worth planting in warm, sheltered gardens where there is room for a large shrub 8 ft (25m) high.

It likes a good, well-drained soil and can be planted against a wall for protection, in which case it should be pruned each spring sufficiently to keep it tidy. It can be increased by seed sown in a greenhouse in spring or by layering in spring or early summer.

Choisya (Mexican orange blossom) A fine evergreen shrub, Choisya ternata is useful for its shining green leaves, well-branched rounded habit and fragrant white flowers, like orange blossom. These are at their best in late spring, though some may be produced more or less all the summer. The plant is a little tender when young, but becomes hardier with age and can be planted outdoors with safety in all but the coldest parts of Britain.

It will grow well in most soils and likes a warm sunny position. Cuttings of firm young shoots taken in summer will root quite readily either in a frame or under mist.

Cistus (Rock rose) These evergreen shrubs are none too hardy, but in fairly mild places they are certainly worth planting because of the great display they make in early summer. The flowers are rather like single roses, very freely produced, though individually they are fragile and do not last long. One of the hardiest is Cistus laurifolius, which grows about 5 ft (1-5 in) high and has pure white flowers. Similar in appearance, but with a deep purple blotch on each white petal, is C. cyprius. A hybrid named Silver Pink has pale pink flowers and C. purpureas has rose-coloured flowers with a maroon blotch on each petal. There are many more. All flower in early summer and all produce seed freely by which they can be increased, though Silver Pink, being a hybrid, will not come true to colour from seed. It, and other specially selected varieties, should be raised from cuttings of firm young growth taken in summer and rooted in a frame or under mist.

All kinds like warm, sunny places and well-drained soils. They do not require regular pruning, but if stems are damaged by frost they should be cut back to sound growth in spring.

Clematis These are amongst the most showy and popular of flowering climbers, but not all varieties are easy to grow. They can be broadly divided into two groups, the small-flowered clematis, most of which are wild species, and the large-flowered clematis, which are mainly garden hybrids. Clematis montana, a very vigorous climber with innumerable small white or soft pink flowers in late spring, is one of the best and easiest to grow of the species, and C. jackmanii and C. jackmanii superba with deep violet-purple, wide-sepal led flowers in summer, are among the most beautiful and easy of the hybrids.

There are many other kinds. C. armandii is evergreen and has small white flowers in mid-spring; C. tangutica has small yellow flowers, shaped like little hoods, in early autumn, followed by silvery, silky seed heads; C. macropetala has nodding lavender-blue flowers in late spring. All these are species.

There are scores of hybrids and it is difficult to make a short selection from them, but henryi, white; Comtesse de Bouchard, pink, and Mrs Cholmondeley, light blue; Nelly Moser, mauve and carmine; Hagley Hybrid, rose pink; Barbara Dibley, deep violet purple; Perle d’Azur, lavender blue, and Lasurstern, purplish blue, are good and reliable.

One difficulty experienced with the large-flowered varieties is that they will sometimes mysteriously wilt when they are in full growth. They may never recover, or the following year growth may reappear, ap-parently unharmed, perhaps to wilt and die a year or so later. This is due to a fungal infection and can be prevented by spraying fortnightly in April and May with a copper fungicide.

Clematis thrive in a wide variety of soils, including those of a chalky nature. They like to be so placed that their roots are in the shade and their stems in the sun. This can often be arranged by planting them behind small shrubs which will shade the soil but permit them to climb up into the light. Clematis climb by tendrils, and their stems are thin and brittle so should be given good support such as trellis-work or wires.

The very vigorous, small-flowered species require little or no pruning, though, if they become too large or crowded, they can be cut back or thinned out after flowering (in early spring for C. tangutica). The large-flowered hybrids are better for annual pruning.

For this purpose it is convenient to divide them into two groups, one composed of those that have normally finished flowering by midsummer, the other of those that go on flowering much of the summer. The first can have some of the older stems removed and sidegrowths from the previous year shortened to one or two pairs of buds; the second can be pruned more drastically, all stems being cut back to within 2 or 3 ft (60 to 120cm) of ground level. Both types of pruning can be done in February or March.

All kinds can be increased by layering in late spring and the species can usually be raised from seed sown in a frame or greenhouse in spring, though sometimes the seed takes a very long time to germinate.

Clerodendrum There are two shrubby kinds, neither very hardy but suitable for planting in sunny sheltered places and useful because they flower late. One, named Clerodendrum trichotomum, makes a big shrub or small tree 10 or 12 ft (3 to 4m) high, and has clusters of very fragrant small white and red flowers in late summer which, in a favourable season, are followed by little turquoise-blue berries. The other, named C. bungei, is shorter, and as it frequently gets cut back to ground level by frost in winter, seldom exceeds 4ft (125 m) in height. It has dome-shaped heads of light purple flowers in late summer. Both kinds have leaves which emit an unpleasant odour when bruised.

Apart from their tenderness they are not difficult to grow, thriving in any reasonably good, well-drained soil and sunny position. They can be pruned in spring as necessary to keep them in shape and get rid of frost-damaged growth. Both produce suckers freely and if more plants are needed suckers can usually be dug up with roots any time between autumn and early spring.

Cornus (Dogwood) From the garden standpoint the dogwoods fall into two groups, those grown primarily for the colour of their stems or leaves, and those grown for their flowers. All are deciduous.

Typical of the first group is Cornus alba, which has deep red stems seen to best advantage in winter, particularly if it is cut hard back each spring, so making it produce strong young stems which are the most highly coloured. There is a variety, known as sibirica, which has brighter red stems. Another variety, named elegantissima has grey-green leaves heavily marked with cream, and another variety, spaethii, has yellow-variegated leaves. All these will grow in any soil, but have a particular liking for moist places.

Fine examples of dogwoods grown pr1 marily for their flowers are C. florida and C. kousa. Both make very large bushes or small, spreading trees with attractive foliage and, in late spring and early summer, they bear flowers which, though inconspicuous themselves, are surrounded by large, white or creamy-white bracts which look like petals. There is a pink form of C. florida named rubra. All these are trees for good, well-worked, reasonably well-drained soils and sheltered positions. Their young growth is liable to be damaged by spring frost.

All dogwoods can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in a frame or under mist in July, but C. alba also roots readily outdoors in autumn and as it suckers freely it can also be increased by digging up and replanting suckers with roots in autumn or winter.

Cotinus (Venetian sumach, smoke tree, wig tree) The shrub that owns all these popular names is Cotinus coggygria. It is a big bush, at least 6 ft (2 m) high and more through, with round leaves that turn crimson in autumn or, in such forms as Notcutt’s Variety and purpureus, are purple throughout the summer. The flowers are quite extraordinary as they appear like tangled masses of pink silk changing to grey. These are handsome shrubs where there is room to let them spread unrestricted.

They like warm, sunny places and good well-drained soils and, as they sucker freely, can usually be increased by digging up suckers with roots in autumn or winter.

Cotoneaster This very big family provides some of the most decorative shrubs of autumn and winter when carrying their abundant crops of scarlet, crimson, or occasionally black berries. Some are evergreen, some deciduous, and there is also a great range of heights and habits, from completely prostrate creeping kinds such as Cotoneaster dammeri, an evergreen, to tall, spreading, tree-like shrubs such as C.frigidus, which is deciduous, and C. cornubia, semi-evergreen.

One of the most popular is C. horizontalis, known as the fishbone cotoneaster because of its close, parallel rows of thin branches like the skeleton of a fish. The leaves are small and round, dark green in summer but turning crimson before they fall in autumn. The small white flowers are followed by abundant scarlet berries. Planted in the open it will spread out horizontally; against a wall it will grow vertically to a height of 6 or 8ft (2 to 25m) without support. The evergreen C. microphyllus somewhat resembles it but has darker evergreen leaves and berries and a more weeping habit which makes it very suitable for planting on top of a bank or terrace wall.

Completely different in character is C. salicifolius, with slender arching branches which may reach a height of 10 ft (3 m), long narrow shining evergreen leaves and clusters of scarlet berries. C. franchetii sternianus resembles it but has broader leaves and is even more effective in berry.

C. simonsii is stiffly erect and will soon reach 8 ft (25 m) if left to its own devices, but can be clipped to form a hedge. It is, however, only partly evergreen and may lose all its leaves in a very cold winter. C. conspicuus decora makes a close 4-ft (125-m) mound of stiff, arching branches with small evergreen leaves and big crops of bright red berries.

All these cotoneasters are completely hardy and easily grown in almost any soil and situation, but will fruit more freely in light, open places. Pruning is not essential, but if they get too big they can be thinned or cut back in early spring. All can be raised from seed sown in a frame, greenhouse, or outdoors in spring, and self-sown seedlings will often appear from seeds dropped by birds. Cotoneasters can also be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in a propagating frame or under mist in summer.

Crab apple, see Apple, Crab

Crataegus (Thorn, quick) The two common hawthorns, Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha, are useful dense and spiny hedge plants for outer boundaries, but the second has two beautiful double-flowered forms which are well worth planting as ornamental trees of modest size. One named Paul’s Double Scarlet has bright red flowers; the other, Double Pink, has soft pink flowers. Both will take a number of years to reach 15ft (45m), but will grow still larger in time. The Glastonbury thorn (C. m. biflora) is occasionally planted because of its habit of flowering twice, in mid-winter and again in late spring. Better as a garden tree is C. prunifolia because of its fine scarlet fruits and the wonderful autumn colours of its rather large leaves.

All thorns are perfectly hardy and will grow practically anywhere. If it is necessary to restrict them, they can be pruned in winter. The single-flowered forms are best increased from seed sown outdoors in spring, but this is rather a slow process. Double-flowered forms are graftedin spring on to seedlings of the common thorn.

Cryptomeria (Japanese cedar) Cryptomeria japonica elegans makes a bushy evergreen tree or large shrub, up to 20 ft (6 m) high, with feathery green leaves which turn to a beautiful russet red in the autumn. It is quite hardy and likes a good rich soil. It is raised from summer or autumn cuttings.

Cupressocvparis, see Cypress

Cupressus, see Cypress

Currant, American, see Ribes

Cydonia see Chaenomeles

Cypress These are amongst the most useful cone-bearing trees and shrubs for the garden. Botanists split them into several groups, giving these different names such as Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Cupresso-cyparis. All are evergreens and most are hardy, quick growing and tolerant of a wide variety of soils.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana will make a big tree clothed to ground level with good green foliage but it can equally well be planted at 3-ft (1 m) intervals and trimmed to make a hedge or screen. It has a lot of varieties differing in habit and colour. For example, allumii is columnar and blue green; erecta is similar in habit but bright green \fletcheri is smaller, taking years to reach 12 or 15 ft (4 to 45m), and grey green, and stewartii has golden leaves. There are many more which make excellent individual specimens in the garden.

Chamaecyparis obtusa is a slow-growing tree which has produced some dwarf varieties useful for the rock garden. C. pisi-fera is particularly valued for the feathery-leaved varieties it has produced such as plumosa and squarrosa. Both these have golden-leaved forms.

Cupressu.s glabra (in gardens usually called C. arizonicd) makes a narrow spire of blue-grey leaves but is less hardy than some. C. macrocarpa has bright green leaves and is very fast growing but is liable to be damaged by cold wind. Goldcn-Icaved varieties are hardier and Donard Gold and Goldcrestareexcellent spire-shaped varieties with yellow leaves. The ordinary green-leaved form was once much planted as a screen or hedge but has been largely superseded by the much hardier and equally quick-growing Cupressocyparis leykmdii. This also makes an excellent specimen and will reach a height of 30 ft (9111) in about 10 years. It is a good rich green.

All are easily grown in any reasonable soil and open or partially shaded position. The species can be raised from seed but garden varieties vary from seed and must be increased by summer or autumn cuttings.

Cytisus (Broom) These are splendid shrubs for light, well-drained, even quite poor and stony soils and there are few places in which they will not grow. All are sun lovers.

The commonest kind is Cytisus scoparius, a big, loosely branched shrub 6 or 7 ft (2 to 2-5111) high and often more through, with thin green stems which give it an evergreen appearance, though in fact the small leaves fall off in autumn. The flowers are yellow and they come in late spring and early summer. There are numerous forms and hybrids with flowers of various colours, vellow and crimson in aiulrcanus. Crimson in Dorothy Walpole and burkwoodii, rose in dallimorei, pale primrose in Cornish Cream and so on. These are tremendously showy shrubs, but not usually very long lived.

Cytisus alhus is known as the white Portugal broom. It has more slender branches than C. scoparius and smaller but numerous white flowers in late spring. C. pracco.x flowers a little earlier, is pale yellow and rather unpleasantly scented though this is scarcely noticed in the garden. C. ardoinii, deep yellow, and C. kewensis, light yellow, are dwarf spreading shrubs. The former not much over 6in (15cm) high, the latter to 1 I ft (45 cm).

Very different from all these is C. battandieri, a big, loosely branched shrub which will soon reach 8 ft (2-5111) in height and carries its yellow, pineapple-scented flowers in little erect clusters in early summer. The leaves are silvery.

Brooms do not like hard pruning, but they can be lightly trimmed back after flowering, though not into the hard old wood. All can be raised from seed sown in spring, and the common broom will often spread itself naturally by self-sown seedlings. Specially selected forms and hybrids do not come true from seed and must be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in a propagating frame or under mist in July. The cuttings are not at all easy to root.

Daisy bush, see Olearia

Daphne Most kinds have extremely fragrant flowers and some have the additional merit of flowering very early. One of the first to bloom is Daphne mezereum, a deciduous shrub which makes a rather stiff bush about 4 ft (1-25 m) high with purple or white flowers clustered on the bare branches in late winter and early spring. It has a habit of dying suddenly for no obvious reason. Its flowers are followed by scarlet berries and the seeds from these often germinate around the bush. It is wise to retain a few of these seedlings to replace losses.

Flowering at almost the same time is D. odora, an evergreen 3 ft (1 m) high with clusters of purple, intensely fragrant flowers. It is not very hardy, but it has a variety named aureomarginata, with a narrow yellow band round each leaf, which will stand greater cold.

The 3-ft (1 m) deciduous hybrid known both as D. burkwoodii and as D. Somerset is a splendid shrub for any sunny position. Producing clusters of soft pink fragrant flowers in late spring.

All daphnes like sunny places and will grow in most reasonably good, well-drained soils. D. mezereum is best raised from seed sown under glass or outdoors in spring and all the other kinds by cuttings of firm young growth either in a frame or under mist in summer.

Dawn redwood, see Metasequoia

Deutzia Hardy deciduous shrubs with elegant sprays of small white, pink or purplish flowers in early summer. They are easily grown in any reasonably open place and ordinary soil, and deserve to be far better known. There are a number of varieties such as elegantissima, rose pink, scented: Pride of Rochester, double flowered and white, slightly flushed with purple; Mont Rose, single and purplish pink; Magician, single, mauve pink; and Boule de Neige, single white.

All can be pruned after flowering if it is desired to restrict their size, the flowering branches being shortened to non-flowering side growths. Left unpruned, most will eventually make big bushes, 7 or 8 ft high (2-25 to 2-5111). All can be increased by cuttings in mid-summer or autumn.

Diervilla, see Weigcla Dogwood, see Cornus

Elaeagnus The most decorative kind is Elaeagnus pungens maculata, an evergreen notable for the brilliance of its yellow variegation. In winter it can be one of the most conspicuous shrubs in the garden. It is quite hardy, may eventually grow 10 ft (3 m) high but will take a long time doing so, and is a fine background plant.

It will grow in any reasonable soil, gets its best colour in a sunny place and can be pruned in spring if it gets too big. It is increased by cuttings in a frame in summer.

Erica (Heather) This is the second genus known popularly as heather, the other being calluna, the Scottish heather or ling. Erica has a number of species, several of which have produced numerous excellent varieties. The special value of the smaller heathers is as ground cover, which can be so dense that practically all weed growth is eliminated. There is great variety in habit and size and time of flowering. Erica camea is low growing and spreading, and flowers in winter and early spring. It has many good varieties including Springwood Pink, heather pink, and Springwood White, white. E. darleyensis is another splendid plant. Smothered in soft rosy-red flowers right through the winter and on into the spring. And growing to about 18 in (45 cm). The Cornish heath, E. vagans. Is similar in height but flowers from mid-summer onwards. Mrs D. F. Maxwell is a fine cerise form of this, and Lyonesse a white form.

Some heathers are much taller. E. arborea will reach 10 ft (3 m) in favourable places, but is more likely to be about 6 ft (2 m) high. It flowers in spring, as does E. mediterranea, a fine heather 3 or 4ft (1 to 1-25111) high. Many more will be found in catalogues.

All thrive best in open places and peaty or sandy soils that are lime free, though E. cornea and its varieties, as well as E. darleyensis and E. mediterranea, will stand a little lime or chalk. They are best planted in spring and should be trimmed with shears immediately after flowering to prevent them becoming untidy. All can be increased by cuttings of firm young shoots in sandy peat in a frame in summer and the low-growing kinds also by layering in spring.

Escallonia The best kinds are all evergreen shrubs with neat shining leaves and small pink or red flowers carried along slender, often arching branches in summer. Not all are fully hardy and some kinds are only seen at their best in the milder places or near the sea. But there are several hardier kinds including Escallonia langleyensis, soft carmine; Apple Blossom, pale pink, and C. F. Ball, rosy-crimson. All will grow at least 6 ft (2 m) high but can be kept smaller by shortening their branches in late summer, immediately after flowering.

All like sunny places and will grow in any reasonably good soil. They can be readily increased by cuttings in summer.

Euonymus (Spindle tree) There are both evergreen and deciduous kinds of euonymus and they look so unalike that to the casual eye they appear quite unrelated. The deciduous kinds, of which Euonymus europacus and E. lalifolius are the best, make big, rather loosely branched bushes, to 8 ft (2-5 m) high, which are not particularly decorative until the autumn when they ripen good crops of cerise fruits which split open to reveal orange seeds within. At about the same time the leaves turn yellow and red before they fall and for a few weeks these spindle trees are very decorative.

The evergreens are of two very distinct kinds: the Japanese euonymus, E.japonicus, a tall, well-branched shrub with rather thick shining leaves, an excellent plant for hedge making, especially near the sea; and the creeping euonymus, E. radicans, a low-growing shrub which will carpet a bed or, if planted against a wall, will ascend it like a climber. Both kinds have varieties with variegated leaves, and this variegation may be either silver or gold. The flowers of all are insignificant.

The evergreen kinds can be grown in sun or shade and in practically any soil. In very cold districts the Japanese euonymus may be damaged by frost. The deciduous spindle trees are all perfectly hardy and equally tolerant of soil, but they prefer sunny places. It is best to plant several bushes

close together so that they fertilize one another, otherwise the crops of fruit may be sparse.

The evergreen kinds can be cut back quite hard in spring and can also be trimmed occasionally in summer. They are readily increased by cuttings taken in autumn and inserted in sandy soil in a frame.

The spindle trees need little or no pruning and are readily increased by seed sown in spring.

Fatsia A handsome shrub grown primarily for its large, deeply divided leaves, though it also has distinctive creamy-white flowers. These are borne in autumn and take the form of globular heads produced in stiffly branched sprays. Fatsia japonica can reach 10 or 12ft (3 to 4m), but can be kept much smaller by pruning in spring.

It will grow in most soils in sun or shade and can be increased by cuttings in a propagator in summer. This is a shrub to add an architectural touch to the garden.

Firethorn, see Pyracantha

Forsythia The abundant yellow flowers of these shrubs are among the most brilliant to be seen in early spring, but in some country districts the expanding flower buds are badly attacked by birds SO that it becomes almost impossible to get a display. The finest kind is Forsythia intermedia and of this there are several varieties differing in the size and richness of colour of their flowers. The best is probably Lynwood. It soon grows 8 ft (2-5 m) high but can be kept smaller by pruning immediately after flowering, when the branches that have just carried flowers are cut out at a point from which younger branches or shoots that have not yet flowered grow. Another useful kind is F. suspensa with longer, more flexible stems that can readily be trained against a wall or fence. The flowers are pale yellow. All forsythias thrive in any ordinary soil and sunny or partially shaded position. All can be increased by cuttings in autumn or by layering in late spring.

Fuchsia Many varieties of fuchsia are greenhouse or summer bedding plants but there are also some sufficiently hardy to be grown outdoors all the year round, particularly in the milder parts of the country and’near the sea: these are useful for they bloom continuously from early summer to the autumn. In Devon and Cornwall and the West of Ireland Fuchsia magellanica ric-cartonii is frequently grown as a hedge and in some parts has actually established itself as a wild plant, spreading by seeds carried by birds. This fuchsia has small sealing–wax flowers but there are other hardy kinds, with larger flowers, such as Mrs Popple, red and violet; Madame Cornelissen, carmine and white, and Margaret, carmine and purple.

In cold winters these fuchsias may be cut down by frost but they usually send up growth from the roots in the spring. They like sunny or partially shaded places and well-drained but not dry soils and they can be pruned hard each spring if desired. All can be readily increased by cuttings at any time in the summer.

Garrya The only species is Garrya elliptica, a fine evergreen shrub which makes a rounded bush, 8 or 10ft (2-5 to 3m) high and covers itself in winter with long, slender, grey-green catkins. There are male and female plants and it is the male form that has the longest and most attractively coloured catkins.

Garrya will grow in any reasonably good, well-drained soil and it likes a warm, sunny, sheltered position. It can be trained against a sunny wall, in which case badly placed or overcrowded stems can be removed in spring. It is increased by cuttings of firm young shoots in summer in a frame.

Genista (Broom) These shrubs are closely allied to cytisus, which is also popularly known as broom, and they are also much alike in appearance and requirements. Genistas vary greatly in size and some are suitable for the rock garden. All have yellow flowers.

Spanish gorse is the popular name of Genista hispanica, a dense, spiny shrub about 3 ft (1 m) high and many feet through, with clusters of yellow flowers in late spring. It is a good shrub to cover a sunny bank. The Madeira broom is G. virgata, a loosely branched shrub 3 to 10 ft (1 to 3 m) high, producing its yellow flowers in summer. Largest of all is the Mt. Etna broom. G. aethnensis, 15ft (45m) high, with whiplike, pendulous branchlets carrying small yellow flowers in the middle of the summer.

All these genistas like warm, sunny places and well-drained soils. The larger kinds can be pruned a little immediately after flowering, when the flowering stems can be shortened, but not right back into hard old wood which may refuse to produce new growth.

All can be raised from seed sown in spring, and some also from cuttings in summer.

Ginkgo (Maidenhair tree) There is only one kind. Ginkgo biloha, and this is a most beautiful tree with fan-shaped leaves which are green in summer and turn bright yellow before they fall in autumn. There are various forms but the most suitable for small gardens is that known as fastigiata, as the branches grow erect like those of a Lom-bardy poplar and so take up little room even though the tree may reach a height of 40ft (12m) or more. It likes good soil and a warm, sunny position.

Glcditsia (Honey locust) Fairly fast-growing deciduous trees with compound leaves com-posed of small leaflets giving the tree an elegant ferny appearance. The best kind to plant is Gleditsia triacanthos Sunburst, in which the young leaves are yellow. Unlike many other kinds which have nasty spines, Sunburst is unarmed.

It grows well in most soils, likes sunny places and is an excellent town tree which will grow large in time but can be kept smaller by pruning in winter. It is increased by grafting on to stocks of the common honey locust.

Gorse, see Ulex

Guelder rose, see Viburnum

Hamamelis (Witch hazel) Winter-flowering shrubs with remarkable flowers, having narrow, twisted, yellow or coppery petals and a pleasant fragrance. Some varieties start to open their flowers in late autumn and others continue until late winter, but the best, Hanuimelis mollis, is usually in full flower soon after Christmas. All are quite hardy and will grow well in rather good, slightly moist, lime-free soils and open or partly shaded places. They make big, open bushes 12 ft or more high, but can be kept smaller by pruning after flowering. Increase may be by layering in spring or detaching rooted suckers in autumn.

Hawthorn, see Crataegus

Heather, see Erica

Heather, Scottish, see Calluna

Hebe (Veronica) This is now the correct name for shrubs formerly known as veronica. All are evergreen but, apart from this similarity, there is great diversity among them. Some are pygmies, more suited to the rock garden than for foundation planting, some are small shrubs with leaves of various kinds. Not all are fully hardy and some, such as the very showy hybrids of Hebe speciosa, are most suitable for seaside planting or for mild places. These have good foliage and quite large spikes of flowers from mid-summer onwards, purple in Alicia Amherst; pink in Gloriosa; crimson in La Seduisante.

The hardiest is H. brachysiphon, also known as H. traversii, a neat 5-ft (1-5-111) bush with abundant small spikes of white flowers from mid-summer. One of the largest is H. salicifolia, with narrow leaves and slender spikes of white flowers in summer. It will grow 6 to 8 ft (2 to 2-5111) high. Midsummer Beauty is intermediate between this and H. speciosa, with rather long spikes of lavender-purple flowers from midsummer till the frosts come. It seldom exceeds 3 ft (im) in height and is a very useful and beautiful shrub for a sheltered place.

Among the best of the smaller kinds are H. armstrongii, 2 ft (60cm) high, with golden-bronze leaves, and II. Pinguifolia pagei, 1 ft (30cm), with grey leaves and white flowers in early summer, excellent as ground cover. Autumn Glory is 2 ft (60cm) high with small spikes of violet flowers from mid-summer throughout the autumn.

None of these hebes is at all fussy about soil and all like sunny places. All can be pruned in spring to keep them more compact and all can be readily increased by cuttings taken in summer or early autumn.

Hedera (Ivy) Many people object to ivy on the grounds that it damages buildings and trees. In fact there is little evidence that it does either and it is certainly unlikely to do any harm to modern brickwork or stonework bonded with cement mortar. On the contrary, ivy protects masonry from the weather and in the right place can be very decorative, but like other vigorous climbers it must be kept in check and not permitted to block rainwater gutters, etc. The common ivy is Hedera helix and is hardly worth planting as there are so many-more decorative garden varieties. These may have smaller or larger leaves or leaves variously coloured with cream, yellow or red. A few of the best are Buttercup, young leaves all yellow; Gold Heart, leaves yellow in the centre; Silver Queen, leaves edged white and pink, and Tricolor, leaves grey green, edged white and pink.

Hedera colchica is another kind of ivy with very large leaves and it also has a splendid variety, dentata variegala, with leaves which are heavily margined with pale yellow.

When ivies flower they become bushy and cease to climb and if cuttings are rooted from these parts they, too, will grow into bushy flowering plants. Some nurserymen offer these shrubby forms.

All, climbers or otherwise, are easily grown in any soil and sun or shade. They can be increased by cuttings in summer or autumn and may be pruned as required in spring.

Hibiscus Some kinds of hibiscus are annuals to be raised from seed each year and some are tender shrubs suitable only for greenhouse cultivation in the British Isles. But one is an excellent deciduous shrub, quite hardy and especially valuable because it flowers in early autumn when there are few-shrubs still in bloom. Its name is Hibiscus syriacus and it makes a rather stiff bush, eventually about 8 ft (2-5111) high, though it is slow growing and can be kept considerably

smaller by a little pruning each February. Its flowers are like those of a small hollyhock and may be single or double. Varieties include Blue Bird, single blue; Hamabo. Single and maroon; Woodbridge, single red; Souvenir de Charles Breton, double lilac; and Ardens, double purple.

All like warm, sunny places and good, well-drained soil. They can be increased by cuttings of firm growth in a frame or outdoors in autumn.

Hippophae (Sea buckthorn) This is a large deciduous shrub or small tree grown for its narrow silvery leaves and abundant crops of orange berries. Its full name is Hippophae rhamnoides and it thrives in any light, well-drained soil and open position, but does particularly well near the sea. There are two sexes and only the female bushes produce berries and then only if a male bush grows near by to fertilize their flowers with pollen. The sea buckthorn usually grows 10 or 12 ft (3 to 4m) high. It needs no pruning though lower side growths can be removed each autumn if it is desired to give it a more tree-like form. It is increased by seed sown in spring.

Holly, see Ilex

Honey locust, see Gleditsia

Honeysuckle, see Lonicera

Hydrangea These very handsome summer-flowering deciduous shrubs thrive well in the warmer parts of the country and near the sea, but some kinds are liable to be damaged by frost in cold districts. The hardiest are Hydrangea paniculate, up to 6 ft (2 m) high, which carries large cone-shaped clusters of creamy-white flowers in late summer, and H. arborescensgrandiftora, to 4 ft (125 m), with globular heads of white flowers in early summer. Both can be pruned hard back each spring if desired; treatment which improves the size of flowers.

The most popular hydrangeas, with large ball-shaped heads of blue, purple, pink, red or white flowers, are all varieties of H. macrophylla. Another race developed from this same species has flat heads of flowers in which all the central flowers are small and bead like and are encircled by a ring of the typical broad, flat flowers. This type is often called lace-cap, and the best known variety is perhaps Blue Wave. In all types the colours are affected by the soil, becoming more pink or red in an alkaline soil and more blue or purple in an acid soil. White flowers are unaffected.

All these hydrangeas succeed in sunny or partially shaded places. They like good rich soils but will also succeed in the light sandy soils so often found near the sea. H. macro-phylla and its varieties require no pruning beyond the removal of weak stems and of faded flower trusses in early spring. All kinds are readily increased by cuttings of firm young growth at any time during spring and summer in a propagating frame or under mist.

Hypericum (St John’s wort, rose of Sharon) This is a big family of plants, many of which are suitable for the rock garden. But there are also some fine shrubs, such as Hypericum paiuhim, a deciduous bush 4 ft (1-25111) high with saucer-shaped yellow flowers from mid-summer onwards. There are several garden varieties, of which the best is Hidcote with flowers of superior size and semi-evergreen foliage.

Hypericum calycinum, the rose of Sharon, is a creeping evergreen shrub spreading by underground stems and excellent for binding the soil on banks or for covering ground densely. It will thrive in sun or shade and has large yellow flowers throughout the summer.

All will grow in any ordinary soil and //. calycinum has a particular liking for chalk soils. It can be increased by division in autumn or winter, and H. patulum and its varieties by cuttings in summer in a frame. None requires regular pruning, but if plants get too big they can be cut back in spring.

Ilex (Holly) The botanical name of holly is Ilex and it will be found under this in many catalogues. All kinds are evergreen trees but they grow so slowly that in gardens they are usually thought of as shrubs. If they do get too large they can be cut back in spring but this may stop berry production for a year. However, not all hollies will produce berries since, in most, male and female flowers are produced on separate bushes. Only the females can bear berries and then only if fertilized with pollen from a nearby male. However there are a few varieties which have flowers of both sexes so will fruit in isolation or can be used as pollinators for females. A fine example of this kind is J. C. van Tol, also sometimes listed as po/ycarpa. Some hollies are grown primarily as foliage plants. Golden King and Golden Queen have yellow-edged leaves: argenteomarginata has white-edged leaves and there are many more.

All hollies will grow in most soils, in sun or shade and can be pruned or clipped in spring and summer. All can be increased by summer or autumn cuttings and also by seed sown in spring, but seedlings may differ from their parents and leaf variegation is not transmitted by seed.

Indian bean tree, see Catalpa

Ivy, see Hedera

Japanese cedar, see Cryptomeria

Japanese quince, see Chaenomeles

Japonica, see Chaenomeles

Jasmine, see Jasminum

Jasminum (Jasmine, jessamine) The two most popular jasmines are both deciduous climbers. One, named Jasminum nudiflorum, is a rather angularly branched plant with thin green stems carrying buttercup-yellow flowers in winter. The other, named ./. officinale, is a much more rampant climber, making a tangled mass of twining growth and bearing sprays of white, fragrant flowers throughout the summer.

Both will grow in almost any soil. J. nudi-florum will succeed in sun or shade and is a useful covering for a north-facing wall. J. officinale prefers a sunny position and may be used to cover a fence, trellis or arbour. Neither needs regular pruning, but if they become too big or untidy they can be thinned or cut back in spring. Both are increased by layering in late spring or early summer.

Jerusalem sage, see Phlomis

Jessamine, see Jasminum

Jew’s mallow, see Kerria

Juniper The botanical name for the junipers is Juniperus and they are usually listed under this in nursery catalogues. They are evergreen cone-bearing trees, some of which are particularly suitable for the garden because of their comparatively small size and interesting shapes. J. communis hiber-nica, the Irish juniper, makes a dense, narrow column 10 or 12ft (3 to 4m) high after some years. J. c. compressa is similar but so slow growing that after 10 years it may barely be 1 ft (30cm) high, which makes it first class for the rock garden. Another kind which will make a slender spire, eventually 15ft (45m) or so high, is J. virginiana Sky Rocket. It is blue grey and very distinctive.

By contrast J. sabina tamariscifolia spreads horizontally and is unlikely to exceed 3 ft (1 m) in height even when it has attained a diameter of 8 or 9 ft (2-5 to 3 m). J. media pfitzeriana is a bigger shrub which spreads out like a wide shuttlecock. There are many more, all easy to grow in almost any soil and sunny or partially shaded place. Increase by cuttings in summer.

Juniperus, see Juniper

Kalmia (Calico bush) These very beautiful evergreen shrubs carry, in early summer. Clusters of pink and white flowers like little Chinese lanterns. They dislike lime and chalk and do best in rather moist peaty soils and sheltered positions. The most showy kind is Kalmia lalifolia, a big bush to 8 ft (2-5 m) high, a little like a rhododendron in habit. A smaller plant with deeper pink flowers is K. angustifolia, sometimes called the sheep laurel. Neither needs any pruning and both can be increased by layering in early summer.

Kerria (Bachelor’s buttons, Jew’s mallow) There are two varieties of Kerria japonica, one with single yellow flowers and the other with fully double yellow flowers like little balls, and it is only the latter that is called bachelor’s buttons. Though varieties of the same species, they differ considerably in habit, the single-flowered form making a dense thicket of growth 5 ft (1-5111) high and the double-flowered form making much longer, less dense growth, with some stems up to 10ft (3m) tall. It is often trained against a wall or fence where it looks very attractive when in flower in spring, but it is not a true climber and needs some support. Both kinds will grow in sun or shade and in any reasonable soil. They can be raised from cuttings of firm young growth in autumn, and also by the very simple method of digging up suckers with roots in autumn or winter.

Laburnum These popular early summer-flowering trees can be grown almost anywhere, though they prefer sunny places and reasonably well-drained soils. They make open, branching trees 15 to 20 ft (4-5 to 6 m) high, carrying trails of yellow flowers which are usually very freely produced. As a rule they are not long lived, but they can be readily renewed from seed, which often germinates of its own accord around the trees. The finest kind, because of the extra length of the flower trails, is a hybrid named Laburnum vossii, but it does not breed true from seed. L. vulgare does and flowers a little earlier.

If trees get too big, branches can be shortened or removed in winter.

Lad’s love, see Artemisia

Laurustinus, see Viburnum

Lavandula (Lavender) The common lavender makes a rounded bush with narrow grey leaves and spikes of fragrant lavender-blue flowers in summer. It is 3 ft (I m) high and may grow thin and straggly with age, a tendency that can be checked by clipping it annually with shears as soon as the flowers fade. But it also has several varieties which differ in size and intensity of colour. The variety Hidcotc is only lift (45cm) tall and has deep purple flowers. Grappcnhall Variety is 4ft (I-25m) high and its flowers are a rather light lavender-blue. Twickle Purple is intermediate in height and colour and there are several more.

All like well-drained soils and sunny places and all will thrive on chalk and limestone. Lavenders are not, as a rule, long lived, but they can be easily increased by cuttings of firm young growth inserted in a frame in summer or outdoors in autumn.

Lavatera (Tree mallow) The plant which most people think of as lavatera is a very showy annual, but there is also a shrubby kind, Lavatera olbia, known as the tree mallow, though it is no more than a shrub, 6 or 7 ft (2 to 2-5 m) high, with rather soft stems, some of which may die back in winter. It flowers all the summer and may be anything from rose to soft pink.

Lavatera olbia does best in light, well-drained soils and is particularly good near the sea. It grows rapidly and can be cut back considerably each spring if it gets too big. Seed sown in a frame or greenhouse in spring germinates readily but seedlings may vary in the colour of their flowers, so especially desirable forms should be raised from cuttings in a frame in summer.

Lavender, see Lavandula

Lavender cotton, see Santolina

Leadwort, see Ceratostigma

Leycesteria Only one kind is grown in gardens, Leycesteria formosa, a shrub of very rapid growth that makes long bright green stems bearing, in late summer, small trails of pendent chocolate and white flowers, often followed by deep purple berries. This is not a showy plant but it is distinctive in habit and flower and will grow practically anywhere in sun or shade. The rather soft stems are often damaged by frost in winter, but this does not much matter as fresh stems are thrown up from the base. It is, in fact, wise to cut some stems nearly to ground level each spring to encourage a good crop of new ones which carry the best flowers. Leycesteria often seeds itself about freely. Seed can be sown outdoors in spring or rooted offsets or suckers can be dug up in autumn or winter and used as new plants.

Lilac Botanically the lilacs are known as Syringa and this sometimes causes confusion in gardens as syringa is occasionally used as a common name for philadelphus.

The common lilac is Syringa vulgaris, a big bush, often 12 ft (4m) or more in height. With close sprays of light purplish-blue fragrant flowers in May. Many improved varieties have been raised, some with much deeper coloured flowers, some with larger flowers or double flowers, some pure white, and one that is a pale primrose yellow. In addition there are several other kinds of lilac worth growing, notably the Preston Hybrid lilacs. S. prestoniae, and the Rouen lilac, S. chinensis, which have smaller flowers in looser, more graceful sprays, though the Preston varieties lack the distinctive lilac perfume. All are equally hardy and can be grown with ease in almost any soil and reasonably open place. Their flowering is improved if the dead flower heads are removed in early summer.

Lilacs can be increased by layering directly after flowering and also by digging up suckers with roots attached in autumn or winter, but, as nurserymen often graft the good garden varieties on to common lilac or privet, it is quite likely that suckers taken from purchased plants will not be of the grafted variety. Suckers from layered plants, however, will reproduce all their desirable characteristics.

Lilac, Californian, see Ceanothus

Ling, see Calluna

Loniccra (Honeysuckle) The familiar climb-ing honeysuckles are botanically known as Lonicera, but this genus also contains ever-green bushy plants which gardeners tend to call lonicera rather than honeysuckle.

The common honeysuckle is Lonicera periclymenum and needs no introduction as its fragrant flowers in summer are familiar to all, but there are many other climbing honeysuckles not so well known. The two finest scented varieties are the early Dutch and late Dutch, both very similar varieties of the common honeysuckle with flowers of superior size and colour.

The Japanese honeysuckle is Lonicera japunica, a nearly evergreen climber best known in a variety named aureo-reticulata which has leaves veined with yellow.

These climbing honeysuckles thrive in almost any soil and situation, and all are readily increased by layering at any time in spring or summer.

Of the shrubby kinds, the most popular is L. nitida, a densely branched evergreen with little rounded leaves rather like those of a box tree. It stands clipping well and makes an excellent hedge up to about 5 ft (1-5m) in height. It will grow practically anywhere and can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in .a frame in early autumn.

Lupinus (Tree lupin) The plant which most people think of as a lupin is herbaceous but there is also a much bushier species, Lupinus arboreus, which is called the tree lupin, though it never makes more than a rather soft-stemmed and short-lived shrub about 5ft (1-5111) high. It is. All the same, a showy and useful plant especially for poor. Sandy soils and seaside gardens where it succeeds very well. The flower spikes are yellow or white, smaller than those of a herbaceous lupin and appearing in early summer. It is very easily raised from seed sown outdoors in spring and it often renews itself by self-sown seedlings. Seedlings may vary in flower colour, so especially good forms are increased by cuttings of linn young growth in a frame in summer.

Magnolia Some of the loveliest flowering trees are included in this very large genus but some are difficult to grow or slow to bloom so selection should be made with care. Most kinds are deciduous but two are evergreen and of these the better for general garden planting is Magnolia grandiflora, sometimes known as the laurel magnolia because of its big shining green leaves. The large white flowers are produced in late summer and autumn. This species is a little tender, for which reason it is often planted against sunny walls and trained like a climber, but where the climate is favourable it will make a big tree in the open.

The deciduous magnolias can be roughly divided into spring-flowering and summer-flowering kinds. The spring-flowering magnolias all have erect flowers shaped a little like tulips, whereas many of the best of the summer-flowering kinds have hanging saucer-shaped flowers, each with a central boss of crimson stamens. Among the best of the spring kinds are M. stettata, the first to open its white or pale pink flowers, forming a big bush almost 8ft (2-5111) high; M. denudata, sometimes known as the yulan, 15 to 20 ft (4-5 to 6m), with large white flowers in April; M. soulangiana, similar in size and a fine hybrid with numerous forms. All with large flowers in April and early May, but varying in colour from white to quite a deep rosy purple, and M. kohus, 15 to 20 ft (4-5 to 6m), with quite small but very numerous white flowers in April and May.

Best of the summer-flowering deciduous magnolias are M. sinensis and M. high-downensis, both 12 to 15 ft (3-5 to 4-5m) high, with very fragrant white and crimson flowers.

All magnolias like deep loamy soils and though some, such as M. highdownensis, will put up with some lime or chalk in the soil, most are better without it. The spring-flowering kinds and evergreens do best in sun but the summer-flowering deciduous kinds do not object to some shade. None requires any regular pruning. All can be increased by layering in late spring or by seed sown in peat and sand in a frame or green-house in spring, but seedlings may take years to flower.

Mahonia Evergreen shrubs, some of which have leaves composed of holly-like leaflets. Mahonias are grown partly for the beauty of their leaves and partly for their small yellow flowers which come very early.

The most familiar kind is Mahonia aquifolium which grows up to 4 ft (1-25111) high, spreads slowly by suckers and has clusters of yellow flowers throughout the spring. A very fine species is M. japonica with pale yellow fragrant flowers produced in late winter and early spring. A hybrid named Charity is stiffer and more upright in habit with deep yellow flowers in autumn and winter, but it is not scented.

All three will grow in any reasonably good soil, M. aquifolium in sun or shade, but M. japonica and Charity like protection from cold winds. M. aquifolium can be pruned or trimmed each spring after flowering and is sometimes used to make a small hedge. All kinds can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in a frame in summer and M. aquifolium by division in autumn.

Maidenhair tree, see Ginkgo

Mallow, Tree, see Lavatera

Malus. See Apple, Crab

Maple, see Acer

Metascquoia (Dawn redwood) Metasequoia glypiosiroboides is a fast-growing tree which has feathery leaves, bright green in summer but turning russet red before they fall in the autumn. It makes a fairly narrow cone and can be grown in gardens of medium size even though it will make a tall tree in time. It is not fussy about soil but likes an open and fairly moist place. It can be increased by summer cuttings.

Mexican orange blossom, see Choisya

Mezereon, see Daphne

Mock orange, see Philadelphia

Olearia (Daisy bush) The popular name is apt as all kinds carry masses of small daisylike flowers in summer. All are evergreen and the most popular is Olearia haaslii, a shapely rounded shrub 6 ft (2 m) high with neat leaves and white flowers in summer. It will grow almost anywhere and is a particularly good town shrub.

More exacting are O. stellulata and O. scilloniensis, both 4ft (1-25111) high with greyish leaves and white flowers in spring. Neither is very hardy and they should be given a particularly warm and sheltered spot in well-drained soil. O. macrodonta is a larger shrub up to 9 ft (3 m) high with grey-green holly-shaped leaves and fine clusters of white flowers in June. It makes an excellent windbreak near the sea but is not hardy enough for cold places inland. All can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in summer in a frame.

Orange ball tree, see Buddleia

Osmanthus These are evergreen shrubs of which the best garden kind, Osmanthus detavayi, is a densely branched bush with small dark green shining leaves. Small but numerous and intensely fragrant white flowers are borne in spring.

It is not very hardy and should be given a sheltered position but it is not fussy about soil and it will grow in sun and shade. No pruning is necessary and it can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in a frame in late summer.

Paeonia (Tree peony) Most people think of peonies as herbaceous plants, which some certainly are, but there are also shrubby kinds of which the best for garden planting is Paeonia suffruticosa. It is a rather soft-stemmed, open-branched bush up to 5ft (1-5111) high and is notable for the opulence of its huge flowers in late spring and early summer. There are single- and double-flowered forms and a considerable range of colours including white, pink, carmine, crimson and purple. The young growth may be cut by frost so plants should be given a sunny and fairly sheltered place.

They like good, well-manured soil and require no pruning. They are not easy to propagate and nurserymen often graft them on to roots of the herbaceous peony. This does not make a very happy partnership and when such plants are purchased it is wise to replant them a little more deeply than before so that the tree peony can make roots of its own. In the garden tree peonies can be increased slowly by layering in spring or early summer.

Parthenocissus (Ampelopsis, Boston ivy. Virginia creeper) These are all quick-growing and vigorous climbers grown solely for their leaves which colour up in autumn before they are shed. The most popular is the Boston ivy or ampelopsis, Partheno-cissus tricuspidata. It has vine-shaped leaves and will cling to a wall or other support by means of little adhesive discs on its tendrils. It colours brilliantly and is often known as Virginia creeper, a name that really belongs to another species, P. quinquefolia. This also climbs by adhesive discs, but its leaves are much larger and the habit is not so neat. P. vitacea is much like the last in appearance but it climbs by tendrils and must have the support of trellis, wires or a tree.

All will grow in any reasonable soil. They will survive in shade but prefer and colour better in sun. If they get too big, they can be cut back as required in spring. All can be increased by layering in late spring or early summer or by ripe cuttings in autumn.

Passiflora (Passion flower) These are very quick-growing climbers with exceptionally distinctive flowers, but they are all rather tender. The only one that is at all reliable outdoors, and then only in a sheltered sunny place, is Passiflora caerulea, a very vigorous plant which will attach itself to any available support by tendrils. It can be grown against a south wall and will flower in late summer, the flowers in the common form being blue and white, or pure white in the variety Constance Elliott.

It likes a good soil and needs no pruning beyond the removal of frost-damaged growth each spring. It can be increased by seed sown in a warm greenhouse in spring or by cuttings of young growth in a frame in summer and it is advisable to keep a few young plants in reserve in a frame or greenhouse in case the established plant should be lost in winter.

Passion flower, see Passiflora

Peach The peaches belong to the genus Primus and the ornamental kinds are all varieties of Primus persica. Under which name they will be found in many nursery catalogues. They are small trees, 10 to 15 ft (3 to 4-5111) high, bearing profuse crops of double pink, red or white flowers in spring. The most popular is Clara Meyer with rose-pink flowers: Iceberg is white, and Russell’s Red is deep carmine.

All like fairly rich soils and warm, sunny places, as they are liable to be damaged by winds and are not as robust as the nearly related plums and cherries. They need no regular pruning but diseased or damaged stems or branches should be removed in winter or immediately after flowering. They are increased by budding in summer, usually on to plum stocks.

Peony, see Paeonia

Periwinkle, see Vinca

Pernettya An evergreen shrub, no more than 3 ft (1111) high, with neat dark green foliage, Pernettya inucronata has small white flowers in summer followed by most

remarkable berries in a variety of colours including pink, lilac, purple, near black. Red, crimson and white. There are male and female bushes and with these only the females bear berries and then only if a male plant grows nearby. But there are also varieties which combine both sexes, such as Belfs Seedling and Davics’ Hybrids, and those are to be preferred in a small garden. Pcrnettya does best on rather moist, peaty soils, though there are few lime-free soils in which it cannot be grown. It will grow in full sun or partial shade and requires no regular pruning. As it spreads by suckers it can be increased very readily by digging these up with roots attached in autumn. It can also be increased by seed sown in sand and peat in spring and in favourable places will often produce many self-sown seedlings.

Perovskia This is a shrub that looks a little like a rather leggy lavender. The kind most commonly grown, Perovskia atriplieifolia, has grey leaves and long thin spikes of lavender-blue flowers in late summer.

It likes a warm, sunny place and well-drained soil. As the plants resent root dis-turbance they should be purchased in pots or other containers and be planted from these with the soil still around their roots. Oddly enough the best method of increase is by root cuttings, i.e. short lengths of root inserted in sandy soil, but these should be put singly in small pots so that they can be grown on without further disturbance.

Philadelphia (Mock orange, syringa) Hardy deciduous shrubs mostly with white, very fragrant flowers in mid-summer. In Phila-delphus eoronarius the flowers are creamy white and almost too heavily perfumed. Among the best are Belle Etoile, Bcauclcrk and Sybille, all with single white flowers flushed with purple or cerise, and Virginal which has double white flowers. Most will soon reach a height of 7 ft (2-5111) if left to their own devices, though they can be kept smaller by cutting out the old flowering stems as soon as the flowers fade. Sybille, however, seldom exceeds 4 ft (1 25 m) and is particularly suitable for small gardens and P. microphyllus, white, is another useful small kind.

All are very easily grown in almost any soil and position though they flower most freely in a sunny place. They can be increased by cuttings of firm growth in autumn inserted in sandy soil outdoors.

Phlomis (Jerusalem sage) Phlomis fruticosa

is a rather soft-stemmed shrubby plant about 3 ft (im) high with grey, sage-like leaves and clusters of yellow, hooded flowers in mid-summer. It is a plant which loves sun, warmth and good drainage. It may be damaged by frost in winter, but usually grows from the base the following spring and is all the better for being trimmed back a little each spring to keep it from becoming straggly. It is easily raised from cuttings in summer.

Picea, see Spruce

Pieris Evergreen shrubs with clusters or sprays of white flowers in spring which resemble those of lily of the valley. Asso-ciating well with rhododendrons, pieris also require lime-free soils. They will grow-in sun or semi-shade but the young growth of Pieris formosa forrestii, which is bright red, is a little tender so this kind should be given a sheltered place. P. japonica is much hardier but lacks the highly coloured young growth. However, there is a hybrid between the two kinds known as Forest Flame which combines the best qualities of both; like them it will grow to a height of about 8 ft (2-5111). P. floribunda seldom exceeds 5 ft (1-5111) and is slow growing. All can be increased by summer cuttings in a propagator or by layering in spring.

Plum All plums are members of the genus Primus and the most popular ornamental kinds are varieties of Primus cerasifera, under which name they will be found in many catalogues. P. c. pissardii (syn. P. c. airopurpurea) is the purple-leaved plum, one of the first trees to flower in spring, sometimes opening its small pale pink flowers in late winter. The leaves are a rich purple. The hybrid P. blireana has lighter coloured, more coppery leaves and larger, deeper pink, double flowers. Neither requires regular pruning but if they become too large they can be thinned or cut back after flowering. They are increased by budding in summer on to plum stocks.

Polygonum (Russian vine) This is a very vigorous twiner capable of ascending a large tree or covering an outbuilding. Its full name is Polygonum bahlschuanicum and it is deciduous and produces great sprays of small, white or pink-tinted flowers in late summer.

It will grow in most soils but it flowers best in sunny places and can be cut back in spring if it strays too far. Increase is by cuttings in summer and autumn.

Potentilla Some potentillas are herbaceous plants and some are rock plants, but two, Potentilla fruticosa and P. arbuscula are deciduous shrubs 4 ft (1-25111) high with yellow flowers which are at their best in early summer but continue almost till autumn. P. fruticosa has numerous varieties such as Katherine Dykes, with larger. Deeper yellow flowers: vilmoriniana with silvery leaves and pale yellow flowers and veitchii, with white flowers. P. arbuscula is shorter and more spreading in habit with deep yellow flowers and silvery leaves in the variety beesii. Elizabeth is a fine hybrid between these two species, intermediate in height and with light yellow flowers. All are excellent because of their moderate size, long flowering season and hardiness.

They like sunny places and prefer well-drained soils but there are few soils in which they cannot be grown. They can be cut back quite hard each spring and are increased by cuttings of firm young growth in a frame in summer.

Primus, see Almond, Cherry, Peach and Plum

Pyracantha (Firethorn) These evergreen shrubs are grown primarily for their fine crops of berries in autumn but they also have good foliage and their clusters of small white flowers make an effective display around mid-summer. They are frequently trained against walls, though they can equally well be grown as bushes in the open. The most popular is Pyracantha coccinea lalandei with large orange-scarlet berries. P. atalantioides has smaller crimson berries and P. rogersiana flava has yellow berries. All are easily grown in almost any soil and will succeed in sunny or shady places. When grown against walls, badly placed shoots should be removed or shortened immediately after flowering. Propagation is by seed in spring or by cuttings of firm young growth in a frame in late summer.

Pyrus This is the genus to which the pear belongs and fruiting pears do make highly ornamental trees, but one kind, Pyrus salicifolia pendula, is grown solely for its weeping habit and its silver-grey leaves, its flowers being sparsely produced. It will grow in any reasonably fertile soil in an open situation and can be pruned in winter to improve its shape and to prevent the branches from becoming overcrowded. In-crease is by grafting or budding on to pear stocks.

Quick, see Crataegus

Redwood, Dawn, see Metasequoia

Rhododendron All the shrubs commonly known as azaleas are, in fact, rhododendrons and in catalogues may be found under either name. Here, however, I have kept them apart so that under this heading only the evergreen rhododendrons, commonly so called, are included. They are a splendid lot of shrubs, many of them extremcly showy in bloom, with a peak display period in late spring, though there are rhododendrons which bloom from the early part of the year until after mid-summer. Some of the best for general garden planting are the hardy hybrids making big rounded bushes up to 1 oft (3m) high, covered with large clusters of flowers in a variety of colours from white, pale pink, mauve and cream to crimson, purple, scarlet and apricot. Typical of these are Pink Pearl, Betty Wormald. White Pearl. Cynthia. Britannia. Susan. Blue Peter, Purple Splendour and Dairymaid.

There are other much smaller kinds such aspraecox, 4ft (I-25m) high, with pale rose flowers in early spring; Blue Tit. 3 ft (1 m), with small blue flowers; Rhododendron williamsianum, 3ft (im), with bell-shaped pink flowers; Elizabeth, deep scarlet, 3ft (1 m), and many more.

Almost all rhododendrons dislike lime and chalk. They thrive on moderately acid soils, but the hardy hybrids will grow in almost any soil that is not actually alkaline. They like peat and leafmould and benefit from annual topdressings of either of these applied at any time of year. They do not need pruning, except for the removal of faded flowers before seed commences to form. They can be transplanted even when quite large, which means that rearrangement can take place if the garden has to be replanned.

All can be increased by layering in late spring. Nurserymen grow many selected varieties by grafting on to seedlings of R. ponticum, the common mauve-flowered species, and suckers from such plants should be removed since they will be of this species and will swamp the garden variety if permitted to remain. Seed of most kinds germinates freely in peat and sand in a frame or greenhouse in spring. Species come true from seed but garden varieties may show considerable variation. Seedlings may take a number of years to reach flowering size.

Rhus (Stags-horn sumach) There is only one kind worth planting in the garden and that is a highly decorative small tree of open-branched habit with long fern-like leaves and curious horn-like spikes of velvet red fruits which look more like flowers. Its name is Rhus typhina and it has a variety, laciniata, in which the leaflets are deeply divided and even more fern like. The leaves of both turn to brilliant shades of yellow, orange, scarlet and crimson before they fall in the autumn and the fruits remain on the tree long after this. This tree soon grows to ioft (3m) high and spreads by suckers which can be dug up with roots in autumn or winter and planted on their own. In any event suckers are best removed as they can become a nuisance by converting one tree into a thicket.

Rhus is not fussy about soil but it likes a sunny position. For the shrub often known as Rhus cotinus, see Cotinus.

Ribes (American currant) This gay and vigorous deciduous shrub, the full name of which is Ribes sangnineum, is one of the first to flower in the spring and it is very easy to grow. Its short, hanging trails of pink or carmine flowers are very freely produced. One of the best varieties is Pulborough Scarlet. All varieties soon make big bushes 8 ft (2-5111) high and will grow anywhere in heavy or light soil, chalk or peat, sun or shade. They can be increased by cuttings in autumn and can be pruned after flowering as hard as is necessary to keep bushes from growing too large.

Rock rose, see Cistus

Romneya (Californian tree poppy) These lovely plants are half shrubby, half her-baceous. Their 6-ft (2-m) stems become firm and almost woody as the summer advances but are usually killed back to ground level in winter and a new lot appears the following spring. The flowers come in late summer and are huge white poppies. Each with a central boss of golden stamens. The foliage is blue grey. Though there are several kinds, they do not differ much from a garden standpoint.

All like sun and the best of drainage and will thrive in very poor, gravelly soils. They are raised from root cuttings in winter, but are rather difficult to transplant, so are grown in pots until planting-out time in spring or autumn.

Rose of Sharon, see Hypericum

Rosemary Evergreen shrubs with narrow aromatic leaves and small lavender-blue flowers-in spring. The botanical name is Rosmarinus. The best kind is R. officinalis, a bushy, erect plant about 4 ft (I-25111) high. There are several varieties, of which Corsi-can Blue is one of the most desirable because of the brighter and deeper colour of its flowers. R. lavandulaceus, also known as R. o. prostratus, is a prostrate shrub which can be planted at the top of a terrace wall or bank to trail downwards. It is very attractive but not very hardy.

All rosemaries like warm, sunny places and well-drained soils and all can be increased by cuttings of linn young growth in a frame in summer.

Rosmarinus, see Rosemary

Russian vine, see Polygonum

St John’s wort, see Hypericum

Salix, see Willow

Santolina (Lavender cotton) Low-growing evergreen shrubs with aromatic leaves and small yellow flowers in summer. The most popular kind is Santolina cliamaecyparissus nana, a dwarf form with silvery-grey leaves which may attain a height of 2 ft (60cm) but can easily be kept to half that if it is clipped hard back each spring. It makes a fine edging for large beds. S. vircns is similar in habit but has bright green leaves. Both like sunny places and prefer well-drained soils. They can be increased by cuttings in summer or autumn or by division in autumn.

Scottish heather, see Calluna

Sea buckthorn, see Hippophac

Senecio This is a family that contains all kinds of strange relations, the common groundsel and the cineraria, the ragwori and the dusty miller. But there is also one excellent evergreen shrub, Senecio greyii, 4 ft (1-25111) high with grey, rounded leaves and masses of bright yellow daisy flowers in mid-summer.

It is fairly hardy but likes a sunny place and well-drained soil. If it gets too big it can be cut back moderately in spring. Cuttings of firm young shoots root readily in a frame in summer.

Skimmia These evergreen shrubs are useful because they will grow well in shade and any reasonably good soil. They are slow growing, have good dark green foliage and clusters of small white fragrant flowers in late spring or early summer followed by shining scarlet berries. The kind most commonly grown is Skimmia japonica and in this there are two sexes, only the female bushes producing berries and then only if there is a male bush nearby for fertilization. But another-a species named S. reevesiana (or sometimes S. fortune!) – is bisexual and so every bush will produce berries. S. japonica is the taller and may eventually reach 5 ft (1-5111). S. reevesiana is about 2 ft (60cm) high. Both can be increased by cuttings of firm young growth in summer in a frame or by layering some of the stems in late spring.

Smoke tree, see Cotinus

Snowball tree, see Viburnum

Snowy mespilus, see Amclanchier

Southernwood, see Artemisia

Spanish broom, see Spartium

Spartium (Spanish broom) This is a very good flowering shrub because it is easy to grow and flowers from mid to late summer when not many shrubs are in bloom. There is only one kind, Spartium junceum, and it makes a big, rather gaunt bush as much as ioft (3m) high if left to its own devices. It can be kept smaller and more compact if pruned in spring by shortening the stems produced the previous year. These stems are green and rush-like and the flowers, like those of a broom in shape, are bright yellow and scented.

The Spanish broom will grow in any soil but particularly likes, light, well-drained soils. It grows well near the sea and likes sun. It can be increased by seed sown in spring.

Spindle tree, see Euonymus

Spiraea (Bridal wreath) There are a lot of different spiraeas and they are all very easily grown deciduous shrubs, some being inclined to spread too quickly and take charge of the garden if not checked. This criticism does not apply to the best kinds which include Spiraea thunbergii and 5. arguta, two very similar shrubs about 4 ft (125 m) high, with slender, twiggy growth wreathed in tiny white flowers in spring. S. vanhouttei grows to 6 ft (2 m) and produces abundant clusters of white flowers in late spring and early summer. S. veitchii has long, arching branches covered in white flowers in summer. One of the best later summer-flowering kinds is S. bumalda Anthony Waterer, only about 3 ft (im) in height, it has carmine flowers which are produced in flat heads.

All will grow in practically any soil. They prefer open, sunny places but will also grow in shade. The spring-flowering kinds can be pruned after flowering when some of the stems can be cut right out to thin the framework. The summer-flowering kinds recommended are not improved by pruning except Anthony Waterer which can be cut to within 6 in (15 cm) of soil level in March. All can be increased by cuttings in mid- to late summer and S. japonica also by dividing bushes in autumn or winter.

Spiraea, Blue, see Caryopteris

Spruce The botanical name for spruce is Picea and most kinds make large evergreen trees, more suitable for estates and forestry than for garden planting. But one kind, Picea pungens glauca, has such beautiful blue-grey leaves, especially well coloured in spring, that it is a popular garden tree even though it may have to be replaced after 15 or 20 years if it gets too big. It will grow in any reasonably good soil and sunny position and is increased by grafting.

Stag’s-horn sumach, see Rhus

Sumach, see Cotinus and Rhus

Sycamore, see Acer

Syringa, see Lilac and Philadelphus

Tamarisk, see Tamarix

Tamarix (Tamarisk) Graceful deciduous shrubs with feathery sprays ofwhite or pink flowers. They like light, well-drained soils and, though they are quite suitable for planting in inland gardens, they have a special value near the sea as they will withstand a lot of salt-laden wind. One of the loveliest is Tamarix pentandra, which has pink flowers in summer. The quality of its flower-plumes is improved if all stems are cut back to a few inches each spring. T. tetrandra has pink flowers in late spring and pruning must be delayed until the flowers have faded. Another, T. gallica, pale pink, flowers in late summer but is not as decorative as the others. It is, however, one of the best for planting as a windbreak near the sea. All can be increased by cuttings in autumn.

Taxus, see Yew

Thorn, see Crataegus

Thuja (Arbor-vitae) The name is often spelt thuya. These are fast-growing, evergreen cone-bearing trees closely resembling cypress and useful for similar purposes. Thuja plicata and T. occidentals are much planted as hedges or screens and they have various garden forms which are also useful. Of these, Rheingold is outstanding because of its slow growth and good golden-bronze colour. Cultivation is as for cypress.

Tree lupin, see Lupinus

Tree mallow, see Lavatera

Tree peony, see Paeonia

Ulex (Gorse) The common gorse, Ulex europaeus, is a wonderfully decorative shrub but it is so common and so readily distributes itself by seed that it is not worth planting in the garden except as a hedge, for which in sandy soils it is excellent. It has, however, a double-flowered variety, flore-plenus, which is even more spectacular when in flower in spring, and which produces no seed. It grows 4 ft (125 m) high and can be pruned, if desired, after flowering. It is increased by cuttings in summer.

Venetian sumach, see Cotinus

Veronica, see Hebe

Viburnum (Guelder rose, snowball tree, laurustinus) These are fine hardy shrubs, most of which are deciduous but a few are evergreen. One of the most popular, Viburnum opulus, is a British wild plant, the guelder rose. In gardens it is usually represented by one of its varieties, either sterile, known as the snowball tree because the white flowers in early summer are carried in ball-like heads, or compactum, which has flat heads of white flowers followed by clusters of currant-red berries and is only 5 ft (15 m) high against the 10 ft (3 m) or more of the guelder rose and snowball tree.

Viburnum fragrans produces its small clusters of pinkish-white, very fragrant flowers in winter, whenever the weather is mild. V. carlesii is also fragrant but its domed heads of white flowers do not open until mid-spring. A hybrid from it, V. carlcephalum, has much larger flower clusters.

All the foregoing are deciduous. V. burkwoodii, which closely resembles V. carlesii in flower, may be evergreen in a mild winter, but if the weather is cold it loses most of its leaves.

True evergreens are V. tinus, V. davidii

and V. rhytidophyllum. The first is known as laurustinus and is much like a Portugal laurel in leaf but has clusters of white flowers, tinged with pink, during winter and early spring. It does well in town gardens and will make a dense bush 8 to 10 ft (25 to 3 m) high.

Viburnum davidii is only about 3ft (im) high with large, leathery, shining leaves and flat clusters of white flowers which are followed by turquoise blue berries if two or more bushes are planted together to ensure fertilization.

Viburnum rhytidophyllum has the largest leaves of all, 6 or 7 m (15 to 18 cm) long, dark green above, covered with yellow hairs beneath. It makes a bush 10 ft (3 m) high and has flat heads of yellowish flowers in early summer followed by berries which change from red to black.

Viburnum plicatum is like a smaller version of V. opulus sterile and, because it comes from Japan, is often known as the Japanese snowball. It has a variety named tomentosum in which the flowers are carried in flat clusters along almost horizontal branches, and another named mariesii in which this feature is even more pronounced.

All can be grown in any reasonable soil. Most like open, sunny positions but V. tinus and V. davidii will grow in shade. Most require little or no pruning, but V. plicatum tomentosum is improved if the top is cut out occasionally to exaggerate the natural, spreading habit of the plant. V. tinus can be trimmed after flowering and again in summer if it is grown as a hedge or screen, a purpose for which it is very suitable.

All can be increased by cuttings in summer and V. fragrans by layers which often grow naturally all round the bush and can be dug up in autumn or winter.

Vinca (Periwinkle) Trailing evergreens very useful for covering the ground in shady places, growing well beneath trees and tall shrubs. There are two principal kinds, the greater periwinkle, Vinca major, which grows 18 in (45 cm) high and quickly spreads over several yards of ground, and the lesser periwinkle, V. minor, a much neater, more manageable plant, 6in (15cm) high and spreading less rapidly. Both have blue flowers in spring and both have varieties with yellow-variegated leaves which are very decorative. In addition, V. minor has a number of other varieties with white or purple, single or double flowers.

All are very easily grown in practically any soil and place. They can be increased by division in autumn or winter and can be cut back after flowering.

Vine, see Vitis

Virginia creeper, see Parthenocissus

Vitis (Vine) The grape vine is named Vitis vinifera and is a suitable climber for sunny walls particularly the variety purpurea which has purple leaves. The hybrid, Brandt, has leaves that turn crimson and purple before they fall in autumn. Both need wires, trellis or something of the kind for their tendrils to cling to. The very vigorous V. coignetiae with large rounded leaves that colour brilliantly in the autumn, is better grown over a shed or outbuilding or allowed to climb

into a tree. All vines can be pruned in winter by shortening the growth made the previous summer to within a few inches of the main vines. All grow in any reasonably fertile soil and are particularly happy on chalk or limestone. See also Parthenocissus.

Weigela These useful and easily grown shrubs are often known as diervilla; all are deciduous and flower in early summer. Carrying their tubular blooms along arching branches. There are several varieties, Bristol Ruby, Newport Red and Eva Rathke with deep carmine flowers; styriaca with rose flowers; Abel Carriere, pink, and variegata with pale pink flowers and white-variegated leaves.

All grow 6 or 7 ft (2 to 2-5 m) high and are very easy to manage in practically any soil and position. They can be pruned immediately after flowering when the old flowering branches are cut back as far as non-flowering stems on young shoots. Increase by cuttings in summer or autumn.

Wig tree, see Cotinus

Willow The botanical name of willow is Salix. All are quick-growing trees, thriving in most soils, but often becoming too large for gardens. Most popular is the golden-barked weeping willow, Salix chrysocoma, which will soon reach a height of 30 ft (9 m). S. matsudana tortuosa is less spreading and has curiously twisted branchlets. S. alba vitellina is grown for the orange colour of the young bark and S. a. chermesina for its red bark. For best effect both are pruned hard each spring. Increase by cuttings in autumn.

Winter sweet, see Chimonanthus

Wisteria (Wistaria) Hardy twining plants with long trails of pea-type flowers in late spring and early summer. They are admirable for covering large areas of walls or for training over pergolas or along trellis work. Alternatively, by annual pruning in summer they can be converted to an almost shrublike habit or trained as standards.

The most vigorous kind is Wisteria sinensis, the Chinese wisteria, which is capable of climbing to 30 ft (9 m) or more. Typically bluish lilac in colour, it has a white variety and a double-flowered variety with deeper purple flowers. The Japanese wisteria, W.floribunda, is less vigorous, seldom over 15 ft (4-51×1) high and it has numerous varieties which can be violet blue, white, pink, and double. One named macrobotrys (or multijuga in some catalogues) has extra fine lilac and purple flowers in trails up to 3 ft (1 m) long.

All like a sunny place and fairly rich soil though they will grow in almost any soil. They flower most freely if pruned every year in mid-summer, when all young growths not actually needed to extend the coverage of the plant are cut back to four or five leaves. If desired, in winter, these summer-pruned stems can be further shortened to 2 in (5 cm). It is by starting this kind of pruning on quite young plants and applying it to practically every growth that shrub-like specimens or standards are formed.

Wisterias can be raised from seed but it is better to increase good varieties by layering in spring or early summer.

Witch hazel, see Hamamelis

Yew The botanical name for yew is Taxus, the common English yew being Taxus baccata. It makes a fine hedge, notable for its dark green colour, and stands clipping well, for which reason it is much used in topiary work. It has a golden variety named semperaurea. The Irish yew is T. b.fastigiata, a variety distinguished by its broadly columnar habit and this also has a golden-leaved variety.

All yews will grow in practically any soil and place. The common yew can be raised from seed but garden varieties must be increased by cuttings in summer or autumn.

Yucca (Adam’s needle) Striking evergreen plants with large rosettes of stiff, sword-shaped leaves and, in summer, tall spikes of bell-shaped, creamy-white flowers. They thrive best in well-drained soils and sunny. Fairly sheltered places. One of the hardiest and most beautiful is Yucca filamentosa with flower spikes 4 ft (1-25111) high. A variety of this has leaves striped with grey and gold. One of the largest is the true Adam’s needle, Y. gloriosa, 6ft (2m) or more in height. No pruning is required except for the removal of the faded flower spikes. Increase is by offsets removed carefully with roots in early spring.