Mood which is far more agitated than can be explained by the circumstances. Genuine mania is a psychosis in which the sense of self is raised and the motor system accelerated. Self-criticism and control over reality are disturbed. Mania can be an element in manic-depressive psychosis or schizophrenia, but it can also be an independent clinical picture, resulting from poisoning, or brain disorders such as inflammation and tumours, or general disorders such as hyperthyroidism. A less marked form of mania is ‘hypomania’, in which the control of reality is not so disturbed and the patient can still function in a normal environment. Hypomania or a manic condition can be a reaction to a particularly pleasing event, or also to sonneting unpleasant: the mania may then serve to mask depression. For this reason mania often includes fits of weeping. Treatment is with lithium salts; admission to an institution is usually necessary to prevent the patient from doing anything that may involve him in later difficulties. Patients in a manic phase may be involved in an orgy of buying things, or indulge in totally uncontrolled sexual behaviour.