A mangle should not be used as a wringer, since repeated damping may split the rollers sooner or later, and in any case will roughen their surfaces, and so make them much less efficient for their proper work of producing a polish on practically dry articles. Mangling should be regarded as a substitute for ironing, or as a process preliminary to ironing.
Care should be taken not to pass buttons or metal fittings through a mangle. They 8 may be broken themselves besides damaging the rollers.
If a mangle has springs at both ends, these should be screwed down equally.
The rollers will be benefited by occasional rubbing – if at all rough – with fine sand paper, and polishing with beeswax dis solved in turpentine to make a thick paste.
This should be rubbed in with soft flannel while the rollers are revolved slowly. The wax, besides producing a much smoother surface, protects the wood against any damp in the articles mangled. 3
Should a roller develop cracks, they may be filled in with plastic wood, which is scraped and sandpapered level when it has set hard. A wide and deep crack may be dealt with by boring screw-holes at right angles to it, with their upper ends large enough to allow the heads of the screws to enter below the surface.
When the screws are in place, but not tightened up, the crack is filled quickly with plastic wood, some of which will probably be squeezed out when the screws are tightened. The screw-holes are then filled in flush.
If a mangle gives violent jerks when turned, examine the gear wheels at the handle end, and the star wheels at the other end. To get at the last, the protecting cover will have to be removed, after unscrewing the holding bolt. The trouble will most probably be due to a tooth or a wheel having broken off.
The only remedy is to send the broken wheel to the makers as a pattern and get a new one in its place. To loosen the key holding the wheel, the roller should be taken out and stood upright, with the other end of the spindle resting on a firm support, and the wheel be struck near the key, to drive it further along the spind!-till the key loosens. The key should b. laid aside carefully for replacement whsal the new wheel arrives.
If any of the three wheels mounted on the roller spindles are found to be loose, the key should be driven in farther to tighten it. If, however, looseness is duo to key or slot having worn, a new key will have to be fitted. This may be made out of the upper part of a 6- or 7-inch cut nail by anyone who is fairly skilful with a file.
Rollers which have worn hollow in the middle and uneven can be trued by turning down on a lathe. But only a small reduction of diameter is permissible, as the star wheels will give trouble if brought too close together.
The paint on the ironwork of a mangle should be renewed when it wears through, as the damp surroundings of a washhouse or laundry will otherwise cause rusting and consequent iron-mould of clothes, etc., that may touch rusty parts.
Vaseline is a good lubricant for gear wheels. The spindle bearings should be oiled regularly, and this will be the more easily done if a long-nosed oil-can is used. Once a year at least the mangle should be taken apart and all the bearings, wheels and spindles thoroughly cleansed of cubed grease and oil.
The compression screws should be slackened right back when the mangle is finished with for the day.
Meat Safe, a home made. A safe constructed in accordance with the following description will do good service for many years. The original, from which details are here taken, is still in use, and apparently as good as new, after completing its third decade.
The woodwork consists of three frames – one for the door, two for the sides – a solid top and bottom, and two crossing struts for the back. The material for the frames is slating battens which, when planed up, measure ½ inch by 1 ½ inch: that for the top, inch thick. The top and bottom overlap the sides. The
X-shaped double strut at the back gives lateral stability. Dimensions over all: height, 2 feet 6 inches; depth, 21 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.
Cut pieces for the sides: four 29½ inches lon, and four 2li inches long. All pieces of the same length are laid side by side and squared across at each end for the shoulders of halved joints. Allow a little spare at each end for squaring-off.
Saw just inside shoulder marks down to half-thickness point, marked with a gauge, and slit the ends down to the cuts, just not cutting out gauge marks. The four pieces of a frame are assembled, tacked with a wire nail driven tlurough each joint, and fixed at the corners, after squaring, with carefully clinched mils . The second frame is assembled on top of the first to ensure the two being of the same shape.
Tack the frames together, and plane the edges into agreement on the outside edges, after cleaning off the spare at the ends of the pieces. Then cover them with pieces of perforated zinc overlapping the inside edges by A inch, and held in place by narrow wooden strips of ½ inch by ½ inch wood, neatly mitred at the corners, nailed on top through the zinc. The zinc, which will prevent the sides altering their shape, is outside the frames, to make more room and not interfere with the fitting of shelves.
The t6p and bottom, of -inch boards, 22 inches long, are now nailed or screwed on.
Turn the framework back upwards and make guide marks en the outside of the frame uprights 3 inches from each end. Lay a batten obliquely across the back up to two of these marks, and cut off with a little to spare. Tack one end to the framework; square framework, and tack the other end. The frames can then be marked for the
MEAT SAFE notches to be cut for sinking the bar in flush.
The second strut is laid across the other in the correct position, and frames are over with shellac dissolved in alcohol, which, when dry, forms a hard, transparent skin protecting the metal beneath from the tarnishing effects of the atmosphere. The object of lacquering is to do away with the need for frequent polishing. Brass door-knobs and other articles which are handled frequently will need re lacquering at intervals.
Lacquer for copper or brass is commonly tinted to a golden colour, but clear lacquers, which reveal the natural colour of the metal, are obtainable.
If the article to be lacquered has old lacquer on it, this must be removed by boiling in a solution of carbonate of soda, or brown potash, followed by clean water. It is then prepared for relacquering in the same manner as hitherto unlacquered metal.
– Siile view of Framework of Meat Safe. S S=Enc!s of back struts.
Marked for notches, and both bars for the intersecting halved joint. When the notches and joints have been cut, the struts are put in place, flush with the back, and secured with screws. The back can then be covered with zinc.
The door, which has a flush strut running obliquely upwards from the hinge side, to increase rigidity, should be a bit large to begin with, to allow for planing down to a close fit. It shuts against £-inch by J-inch strips nailed to the sides, top, and bottom behind it. When these have been fixed, the door is hung, and zinced while in the closed position.
Crossbars are nailed to the sides to support one or two movable shelves of the open grid type; and a bar for hooks is fixed an inch below the top.
Metal Lacquering. This process consists of painting brightly-polished metal . _ 1
JK A yS x 1
– Back view after struts have been fitted.
After being thoroughly polished, it is washed in clean water, dried in warm sawdust, and brushed over with a soft brush. During these operations it must not be touched by the fingers, as this would be sure to leave grease on the polished surfaces.
Under one method of lacquering, the object is not warmed until after the lacquer haa been applied, and is then heated until the lacquer distributes itself evenly over the surface and hardens. Another method is to heat the object before brushing it over.
It should be mentioned that one class of lacquers, called cold lacquers, do not require the use of heat at all, but are merely brushed on like wood varnish. Some of them are quite satisfactory; but on the whole hot lacquers are to be preferred. The novice should try both methods of using them.
He will very likely find that applying cold and heating afterwards gives the better results, as the lacquor is then able to spread itself thoroughly before hardening. The object should be turned about repeatedly during the heating, to prevent the lacquer collecting on the lowest part of it.
Use a camel-hair brush for applying lacquer, and do the work by daylight. Be careful not to overheat the lacquer. A tin biscuit-box over a gas ring makes a good heating oven.