Protrusion of tissue through a hitherto non-existent opening, affecting various kinds of tissue, usually in the abdomen. A slipped disc is also known as a hernia (herniated or prolapsed nucleus pulposus). Hernias are named after. Their location; common forms include inguinal hernia (in the groin), umbilical hernia (in the umbilicus) and hiatus hernia (of the diaphragm). A hernia can be congenital, but more often occurs in later life. It is always caused by an unduly wide opening, or by a weak spot in the abdominal wall, or by regular raising of the pressure in the abdomen -for example by straining during defecation, chronic coughing, or awkward lifting.

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