The following are a few simple rules for Graining : Mahogany – graining.— Use orange coloured paint for a ground, and Vandyke in water for graining. Cover the whole of the work with a new mottler, with some good Vandyke-stained beer ; then using a feather, use some stiffer colouring, to put in the ‘flower’ or ‘ ‘feather’ of mahogany (for panels, &c), bringing the ends of the flower flush with the outs ides of the panel, and the ‘arch’ of the same to a point almost in the centre of the panel. Soften as for maple, drawing softener towards the middle. For styles and other straight and narrow work, use the ‘mottler’ in a broken zigzag manner ; soften as before ; when dry, varnish.

All the above water-colours can be bought ready for use from the colour shops.

Maple -graining. —

Use ‘cream-colour’ paint for the ground. For graining-colour use Vandyke brown in water and a little burnt sienna thinned with beer. Using a sponge or the ‘mottler,’ go over the whole of the work to be grained with some very thin stain, then for the waves and curls use the ‘mottler’ with some stiffer colour, and in an irregular, wavy, zigzag manner, work in the patterns desired. Soften with the badger, and when dry go over the principal parts with the over-grainer and thin burnt sienna. ‘With a wide-toothed pocket or hair comb you may divide the over-grainer, in order to vary the thickness and distance of the lines put in. Varnish, when dry, with pale elastic oak varnish.


As a ground, use buff paint, consisting of white lead, ochre and a little red. To make the ‘guilp’ or graining-colour, take some burnt-umber, a little ochre (according to requirements), a little Venetian red, as much patent driers in weight as half the above materials, boiled oil and turpentine—rather more of the latter—and a little terebeneto set it quickly. Thin with boiled oil, strain, and when it has cleared, use. It should be rubbed out very thinly, to ensure transparency. With a coarse graining-comb go over the panels of a door, the outer styles, the lock rail, and bottom rail, then repeat with a finer comb in a zigzag manner. With a medium comb, go over the remaining portions twice, once straight, and once zigzag. If you think you can imitate the knots of the wood, do so by using a piece of wash-leather with the thumb-nail behind it, or with a ‘ horn ‘ or ‘thumb-piece ‘ wrapped in a piece of clean soft rag. With this, wipe off the colour in the manner which will have been noticed in professional work, or, better still, obtain a piece of polished wood for a guide. If you prefer not to attempt this, it will look quite well simply ‘plain-combed’ and varnished. ‘Over-graining,’ that is making the darker shades, is done with Vandyke brown ground with water and thinned with beer ; for the streaks put on with a brush called an ‘ over-grainer.’ A ‘mottler’ is used when the whole style of a door is to be darkened. Gently soften with a badger-hair softener, and varnish when dry.