Fences and Gates, Garden

The cheapest form of fencing, after plain post-and-wire, is that of split chestnut, sold ready for fixing in long lengths by any timber merchant. The wire spacing the bars and holding them together is stapled at intervals to posts, upon the durability of which largely depends that of the fence. The posts sold with the fencing often err on the side of flimsiness. If the wire has been poorly galvanized, rust will shorten the life of the fence considerably; so it is worth while paying a bit extra for good galvanizing. The fact that a fence of this kind is wobbly makes it difficult to climb over.

More permanent fences have a framework of posts and horizontal rails, and to the outer face of the latter vertical boards are nailed to give a closed fence or spaced bars for an open fence.

Many closed fences are made of over-lapping split oak shingles or deal weather boards. If the top of a closed fence is not ornamented in any way by being notched or cut into curves, it may well be surmounted by a triangular capping which gives it a finish and prevents rain soaking into the end grain.

Here laths of deal or oak are fixed to form a square lattice which, if the mesh is fairly small and the fence of good height, can be used as a trellis to attach roses, clematis and other climbing plants to. In another form, which has Whatever form of fence be selected, the become rather popular, the fence is made stability and permanence of the posts practically closed by interweaving wide, should be a first consideration. How many thin laths of cleft oak. Wooden fences does one see which have been ruined by their posts giving way! If oak posts (with good butts) have to be ruled out as too expensive, trouble should not be spared on making cheaper posts as rot-proof as possible to a point some inches above ground level. The simplest way of doing this is to soak the bottom ends in creosote.

Get some drain pipes of sufficient length and internal diameter, plug their small ends with an inch or so of sand-cement mortar,

Mortises are started by boring holes with a bit top and bottom, and are cleared out with a chisel. When the first post is in position, insert one end of the rails into it, then knock the next post over the other end, fill in the hole; and so on. Stretched strings and a plumb-line are used to get the posts in alignment top and bottom and vertical. Fix rails into posts with trenails; and use galvanized nails for fixing on oak boards or pales, since oak soon rusts iron.

Sink them vertically in the ground, stand the posts in them, and fill up with creosote. As the creosote sinks, add more, until absorption ceases. If the first filling i8 done with hot creosote, so much the better. The rails also should be of oak, if possible. Those sold for the purpose are usually tliree-cornered, the widest face against the boards or pales. At the ends they are reduced to meet in mortises cut in the sides of the posts. The bottom rail should be well above the ground and a small space be left between the boards and the earth, to prevent moisture soaking up into the wood.

Another quickly-made type is the ledge-and-strut , which is considerably more substantial than the preceding. The boards may be grooved into the rails and stiles, or nailed into a rebate made by nailing slips on the inside of the stiles and rails. If the boards make a tight fit they will do the work of a strut in preventing the gate dropping at the latch side.

The main posts are 7 feet long, and 7 by 3 inches in section; the intermediate posts of 3 J- by 2 ½ inch stuff. The posts are 3 feet apart, centre to centre, and go 2 feet into the ground. Rails of 3by 1 ½ inch wood are nailed to the outside faces, being spaced 11, 10, and 8 inches, reckoning downwards. The main posts are erected first, and the rails nailed on. The intermediate posts are then driven, in contact with the rails, and their tops trimmed off. The main posts are bevelled at the top, as shown.

The board near the centre lines of A and o, and a slanting hole ½ inch in diameter is bored at one end of each line, on the B side ot it, at an angle whioh will just clear the corner of the joist.

The tip of a keyhole saw is inserted and used gently to start the cut along the line, and the saw is entered farther as the cut lengthens, till the part nearest the handle can be used. Care must be taken to cut along, or parallel to, the marked line, and to keep the angle constant.

When the board has been severed at both ends, it is prised loose from B, from , &&

Floor, Making Openings in. It may be necessary to get at a pipe, wire, or electric-light fitting situated between a floor and the ceiling below, and to do so will entail removing a board or boards.

The run of the joists will be at right angles to that of the floorboards, and the positions of their centre lines be indicated by the nails holding the boards down. The joists will probably be 2 inches thick.

The first thing to do is to punch the nails holding the board to A and c well below the surface and those over B nearly through. Cutting lines are squared across which the nails are extracted; or, if this cannot be done, they should be driven in flush.

Its ends having been cut slanting, the released part will overlap the parts left fixed. But, since it has been shortened by the width of the two saw-cuts, it will be able to tilt on B. In a case like this, where there is only one intermediate joist, or where a piece is cut out between two joists, four fillets should be nailed to the joists, as shown, for the board to rest on.

If there is any likelihood of the piece having to be taken out again, it should be secured by screws, not nails, those at the ends sloping towards the joists. The

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