Occasionally children are born with a constricted foreskin that does not allow for retraction. This can cause constriction over the exit of the urethra, which can create an obstruction to the outflow of urine. This can create a ballooning under the foreskin with a high-pressure stream through the small, narrowed outlet.


The situation should be reviewed by a specialist because an operative procedure, including circumcision, may be required.

Do not try to force back the foreskin, because this will lead to tears and potential infection.

If an operation is considered, see Circumcision.


The testes develop within the abdominal cavity through the foetal stage. They travel down into the scrotum either just before birth or within the first few weeks after. As they descend, they bring with them blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves and travel down the inguinal canal.

In some cases, for no known reason, the testes fail to descend. This is sometimes associated with short vessels that do not stretch, thereby impeding descent.

The testes hang away from the body and the scrotum because they function at a lower temperature than the body would provide. Failure to descend or entrapment within the inguinal canal will preyent maturity and the ability to produce sperm.


Undescended testes by the age of one year may be treated by the homeopathic remedy Clematis 200, one pill each night for three nights. If there is no effect over the next month then use the remedy Aurum Metallicum 200, one dose each night for three nights.

Surgical intervention may be necessary and this is usually performed after the age of three years. See Operations and surgery if this avenue is to be taken.

Gentle heating and massage of the area will help.

Dehydration is a common cause of aches and pains. Ensure that your child is drinking enough water, very diluted juice or herbal teas. Aim at half a pint per foot of height per day.

Chamomile tea can be very soothing.

Minor deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper can all be culprits for aches and pains. A good diet should be adequate but sometimes mineral supplementation is beneficial.

Persisting pain without an obvious cause should be reviewed initially by an osteopath or chiropractor. If relief is not forthcoming then a paediatrician should be approached.

Please note that any aches and pains that are altering the child’s gait (walking) should be assessed by an osteopath or other body worker specializing in children.