(1) Plant raspberries between late autumn and early spring when the weather is mild and the soil is not too wet. Plant so that the root system is about 7.5 cm (3 in) deep and the individual canes are about 45 cm (18 in) apart. Subsequent rows of raspberries should be at least 1.2 m (4 ft) apart. Cut back the canes to 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in) from the ground after planting.
(2) Summer fruiting raspberries are pruned immediately the fruit has been harvested by cutting away all those canes which have borne fruit. Up to six of the best new canes are tied in at each plant to take their place.
(3) In late winter, summer fruiting rasp- berries should be cut back slightly to around 1.65 m (51 ft) tall to encourage the formation of fruit-bearing side-shoots.
(5) All the canes of autumn fruiting rasp-berries should be cut to the ground annually in late winter. Limit the number of new canes arising from each plant to six.
(5) Blackberries and hybrid berries should be planted in compost-enriched soil and trained against a framework of wires.
(6) Cut away the old canes at ground level once you have harvested your crop of black-berries, loganberries or boysenberries, and tie in the new canes to take their place.