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Bladder, disorders of

The most important bladder conditions are concerned with urination. Difficulty in urination can be the result of sclerosis of the neck of the bladder, stricture of the urethra or pressure of a tumour on the urethra, a pregnant uterus or prolapse of the floor of the bladder, common in women. Failure of part of the nerve supply to the bladder associated with some conditions of the spinal grey matter can also cause difficulty in urination. Often such difficulties cause urinary retention, urine retained in the bladder after urination which, by increasing the pressure in the bladder, can cause diverticulitis of the bladder, as well as increasing the likelihood of bladder stones and cystitis (inflammation of the bladder), the latter associated with pain when urinating, and an increased need to do so. Tumours of the bladder are often benign polyps, which may develop into cancers of the bladder. A fairly common condition in women is urinary incontinence, involuntary urination when the pelvic muscles are used or when coughing or laughing.

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