BRUSSELS SPROUTS
Vegetable Growing

Best Vegetables To Grow For Food

Below is like a swipe file of the best vegetables to grow for food. If you had to escape fast and all you could take with you was this article printed out, you would have enough basic knowledge to start fending for yourself as a self sufficient food producer. The following vegetables will provide all the protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins to live on. They can also be grown as livestock feed, and can be harvested ALL YEAR round.

ARTICHOKE, JERUSALEM

ARTICHOKE, JERUSALEM

General. Easily grown. Useful for soups. Stems cast heavy shade, therefore choose a position accordingly.

Plant. February-April. 1ft. Apart in rows 2 ft. 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. Dry soil is best. Manure well. Dig in vegetable matter. Apply 2 oz. Sulphate of potash and 3 oz. Superphosphate of lime per square yard before planting.

Variety. New white.

Quantity. Seven lb. For 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. Lift after the tops die down as required. Be sure to lift every one, as any portion left behind will grow next season.

ARTICHOKE, CHINESE

An oriental plant grown for its tubers. Plant March-April in sunny spot. Use during winter.

ARTICHOKE, GLOBE

globe artichoke

General. A large decorative perennial plant, needing plenty of space. Once established, it needs little care.

Plant. Raise from seed in March, or plant young plants in April. Plant 18 in. apart and 3 ft. between the rows.

Cultivation. Deeply dug rich soil is needed to obtain good crops. Hoe during the summer months. Fork the ground round the plants each autumn and give a dressing of decayed farmyard manure. In cold districts the crowns should be covered lightly with dry leaves.

Varieties. Purple Globe, Green Globe.

Quantity. A small packet of seed will produce more than enough plants for the average garden. Buy the number of grown plants required for the space.

Season of use. The young flower buds are cut for eating during the summer.

ASPARAGUS

ASPARAGUS

General. When once prepared, the bed is little trouble to maintain and one or two rows are sufficient for a small family.

Plant. Two-year-old crowns in March for quickest results 1 ½ ft. apart in two or three rows 1 ½ ft. apart.

Cultivation. Good drainage and generous manuring are essential. Bastard trench 3 ft. deep and bury plenty of vegetable refuse 2 ft. deep. Rotted seaweed is a valuable top -dressing ; apply 4 in. thick. Replace the soil to form raised bed. Apply 1 oz.. Nitrate of soda per square yard in spring.

Varieties. Connover’s Colossal. Quantity. Seventy plants for 50 ft. of double row.

Season of use. March to early June. No cutting should be continued after the beginning of June and in the case of young plants only one or two shoots should be cut the first year ; more may be cut the second year and as required later.

BEANS, BROAD

General. This is an easily grown and very accommodating crop. Rich in protein, the vegetable substitute for meat.

Sow. November, Longpod types ; March, Broad Windsor types. Drills 6 in. wide and 2 ft. 6 in. apart each to take a double row of seeds 4 in. apart.

Cultivation. On good ground organic manure need not be dug into the soil. On light soils a mulch given in the spring is beneficial. Apply 2 oz. Of basic slag per ‘square yard in the autumn prior to sowing. If an attack of black aphis is discovered the simplest remedy is to pinch out the tops of the plants.

Varieties. Seville Longpod, Exhibition Longpod, Early Giant Windsor. .

Quantity. One pt. For 30 ft. of row.

Season of use. July and August.

BEANS, FRENCH OR KIDNEY

File:Kidney beans.jpg

General. These are easily grown and are useful in order to have beans a fortnight before runners are ready. Rich in protein.

Sow. Mid-May onwards. Make three sowings at intervals of a fortnight. Drills 6 in. wide and 2 ft. apart each to take three staggered rows of seed 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. Good on sandy soil, as they withstand drought. No heavy manuring is necessary before sowing. Apply basic slag in the autumn after digging. Apply ½ oz. Sulphate of potash and 1 oz. Superphosphate per square , yard when sowing.

Varieties. Masterpiece, Canadian I Wonder.

Quantity. Half a pt. For 60 ft. of row.

Season of use. Late July.

BEANS, RUNNER

General. They give a good return for 1 the small space occupied. In addition to the usual method of supporting them on rods they may be trained up trellis or against a fence or wall.

Sow. End May. Drills 6 in. wide, . Each to take two staggered rows of seed 6 in. apart. Two drills 18 in. apart to each set of poles.

Cultivation. Any soil is suitable. No heavy manuring is required before sowing. Bonfire ash is very good if applied freely to the surface when sowing. Alternatively, apply. I1 oz. Superphosphate and oz. Sulphate of potash per square yard at this time. Stake with poles set one to each plant on either side of the double row. Cross them at the top and in the V’s thus formed lay another pole and tie securely into position.

Varieties. Scarlet Emperor, Prizewinner.

Quantity. Half a pt. For 30 ft. of row.

Season of use. August until the first frost comes. Fresh beans may also be preserved in salt for use in winter.

BEANS, WAXPOD

General. This type is grown for cooking whole, the pods being stringless.

Sow. Mid-May onwards. As with French beans, three sowings may be made. Drills 6 in. wide and 2 ft. apart, each to take three staggered rows of seed 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. Sandy soil suits them best. No heavy manuring is required before sowing. Wood ashes are useful.

Varieties. Golden Waxpod, Giant Waxpod.

Quantity. One pt. For 6o ft. of row. Season of use. July-August.

BEANS, DUTCH BROWN

General. These are grown for use like grocer’s butter beans, the seeds being removed from the pods after drying. Rich in protein.

Sow. End May. Drills 6 in. wide and 2 ft. apart, each to take three staggered rows of seed 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. They grow best on a light soil, but with deep digging and attention to drainage they may be sown on any soil with success. Wood ashes are good.

Variety. Dutch Brown.

Quantity. One pt. For 6o ft. of row.

Season of use. When the pods are fully grown, pull up the entire plant and hang in a dry airy place. After a few weeks the beans may be easily taken from their pods and stored in jars.

BEET

General. This root crop has a great dietetic value. In addition to the usual use in salads and with cold meat, it is excellent when boiled or steamed.

Sow. April-May, and again in July. Drills 1 ft. apart. Sow three seeds together at intervals of 6 in. Thin the seedlings so that the strongest remain.

Cultivation. They can be grown successfully in any soil. Hoe the rows continuously, taking great care not to damage the roots. Freshly manured ground must be avoided. During October the roots will be ready for lifting. Do this during a dry spell and avoid damaging them or they will be spoilt through bleeding. The leaves must be twisted off.

Varieties. Long : Blood Red, Perfection. Globe : Crimson Ball.

Quantity. One oz. Of seed will sow 150 ft. of row.

Season of use. August onwards. Store in a clamp as for potatoes or cover them with dry sand.

BROCCOLI

General. By careful selection from the four divisions, heads of broccoli can be produced for use practically all the year round.

Sow. For autumn, mid-March in a frame ; for winter, late April in a seed bed outside ; for early spring, April in a seed bed outside ; for late spring, May in a seed bed outside.

Plant. The young plants may be planted out when they are large enough to handle, 2 ft. apart in rows 2 ft. 6 in. apart.,

Cultivation. A firm, somewhat heavy soil produces the closest curds (heads), and if broccoli follows a crop that received deep digging, single digging will be sufficient. Newly turned soil, especially of a light nature, should be trodden down to make a firm bed. Apply a slow-acting fertilizer, such as bonemeal, when planting, at the rate of a oz. Per square yard, followed by nitro-chalk at the same rate. Alternatively, apply x1 oz. Of superphosphate and oz. Of sulphate of potash prior to planting. To protect the heads in a hard winter the plants may be heeled over to the north by removing a little soil on one side, pushing them over at an angle and replacing the soil on the other side.

Varieties. Autumn : Veitch’s Self Protecting, Michaelmas White, Extra Early Roscoff. Winter : Rescoff No. t, Roscoff No. 2, Early Feltham. Early spring : Roscoff No. 3, Roscoff No. 4,;1 Snow’s Winter White. Late spring : – Roscoff No. 5, Late Feltham, Whitsuntide.

Quantity. ¼ oz. Seed for 50 ft. of row. Season of use. September-May.

BROCCOLI, STAR

General. This type produces several

heads on one plant and is therefore par’,

ticularly useful for the small household.. Sow. April-May in a seed bed outside.’ Plant. When large enough to handle,

2 ft. 6 in. apart in rows 3 ft. apart. Cultivation. As for ordinary broccoli. Varieties. Nine Star, Bouquet. Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed for 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. Throughout the spring if successional sowings are made.

BROCCOLI, SPROUTING

sprouting broccoli

General. This is hardier than the hearting broccoli, needing no winter protection.

Sow. March-April in a seed bed outside.

Plant. When large enough to handle. Cultivation. As for ordinary broccoli, ft. apart in rows 3 ft. apart.

Varieties. Early Purple, Late Purple. Quantity. Quarter of an oz. For producing five hundred plants.

Season of use. September-April. It is the loose flower heads that are used.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

General. A very popular late autumn vegetable to follow celery.

Sow. Early March in a cold frame. Early April outside in a seed bed. Drills 9 in. apart. Transplant the seedlings to another part of the nursery plot, 6 in. apart.

Plant. April-June, 2 ½ ft. apart in rows 2 ½ ft. apart.

Cultivation. A particularly long growing season and plenty of space in which to develop is required. The soil should be bastard trenched, and if manure is obtainable this should be dug in. Failing this, add plenty of decayed vegetable matter ; this should not be near the surface. Apply fertilizers. 1 ½ oz Superphosphate and ¾ oz. Sulphate of potash per square yard.

Varieties. Evesham Special, Clucas Favourite, Matchless.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. of seed for 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. October-February. Pick the lowest sprouts first.

CAULIFLOWER

General. Cauliflowers fill the gap between the early summer and autumn crops of broccoli. They are less hardy. The flavour is more delicate.

Sow. January-February in boxes in gentle heat ; prick out into frames April-May in a seed bed outside.

Plant. April-June, 1 ½ ft. apart in rows 2 ft. apart.

Cultivation. As for broccoli. Varieties. Snowball, Early Giant. Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed produces five hundred plants.

Season of use. August-October from successional sowings.

CABBAGE

General. Greenstuff is an important item in the food supply, and where salads are short, raw young tender cabbage hearts may be finely shredded and will prove acceptable.

Sow. For spring, early August in a seed bed outside ; for autumn, .March and April in a seed bed outside.

Plant. For spring : September, 1 ft. apart in rows 1 ft. apart. For autumn : May and June, 1 ½ ft. apart in rows 2 ft. apart.

Cultivation. For good hearts cabbages need a firm soil, therefore avoid planting them on newly dug ground. It needs, however, to be well drained with organic manure previously dug in at the rate of one barrow load to to sq. yd. Light dressings of a nitrogenous fertilizer, 1 oz. Per square yard at intervals are beneficial to avoid any check to the plants. In this way they are more tender.

Varieties. Spring : Harbinger, Offenham, Ellam’s Early. Autumn : Christmas Drumhead, Winningstadt. Savoy : Onus-kirk Early, Ormskirk Medium, Ormskirk Late.

Quantity. Three-quarters of an oz. of seed for producing five hundred plants.

Season of use. All the year round. Although called spring and autumn cabbage, successional sowings will give a supply throughout the year.

CAPSICUM

General. In wartime it is as well to aim at producing everything that will be required in the kitchen. This includes plants grown for seasoning.

Sow. March in heat.

Plant. June, 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. Sun heat is the chief factor for success and therefore capsicum should be grown on a very sunny border. A leafy soil is best.

Variety. Mammoth Red.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. For 50 ft. row.

Season of use. Gather in August.

CARDOON

General. This is similar to celery, but grows to a greater length and is of a distinct flavour.

Sow. April in boxes in cold frame. Prick out on to a hotbed.

Plant. June, 15 in. apart. One row is usually sufficient.

Cultivation. Deep digging and the addition of organic manure or vegetable refuse are essential. During the growing season, liquid manure should be given and in dry weather water also.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed for producing seventy-five plants. Season of use. Autumn.

CHIVES

General. Chives belong to the onion!, family and are used as flavouring in soups and salads. Only the green leaves are used. Mild flavour.

Sow. Spring.

Plant. As an alternative to seed, offsets

(that is small bulbs) may be planted in spring.

Cultivation. They will grow in any ordinary soil, but like dry conditions. Season of use. Spring and summer

COLEWORT

General. This is the equivalent of a little winter cabbage.

Sow. May-June in a seed bed outside.

Plant. July, 1 ft. apart in rows 15 in. apart. Alternatively, sow in rows 15 in. apart and thin to 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. As for cabbage.

Variety. Rosette.

Quantity. Half an oz. Of seed for 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. Winter. Cut as required.

CARROT

General. From successional sowings young carrots can be obtained in season throughout the spring and summer and the main crop will give a supply for the 1. winter.

Sow. January-February on a hotbed. March-April outside, also July. Drills 9 in. apart. Thin the seedlings gradually to 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. As for all root crops, a I soil that does not contain stones is most suitable ; otherwise only stumpy varieties can be successfully grown. Stones cause the roots to fork. Do not dig in manure prior to sowing. During the growing season a general fertilizer can be applied along the rows in showery weather.

Varieties. For forcing : Early Shorthorn. For main crop : James Scarlet Intermediate, Long Surrey.

Quantity. One oz. Of seed will sow 150 ft. of row.

Season of use. All the year round. For storing, lift the roots in autumn ; store in a clamp or dry sand.

CELERIAC

(TURNIP-ROOTED CELERY)

General. Celeriac has many advantages for the small garden or allotment owner. Whereat the flavour of celery and celeriac are similar, the latter does not need earthing. Also, a point very much in its favour is its keeping quality. It may be used for salads and cooked in the same way as celery.

Sow. March on a hotbed.

Plant. June, 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. It is a gross feeder and therefore must have plenty of vegetable matter dug in. Apply bonemeal at the rate of 4 oz. Per square yard before planting. Liquid manure should be given occasionally. To blanch the stem root which grows near the surface, hoe soil up to it.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed for producing seven hundred and fifty plants.

Season of use. November-January. Store the roots in dry sand.

CELERY

General. As soon as beans are withered by the frost, celery will be ready for the table.

Sow. February-March in boxes in heat or on a hotbed. Prick out the seedlings on to a hot bed.

Plant. June, in trenches specially prepared in early spring so that they may become weathered. Make the trenches1 ½ ft. wide and1 ½ ft. deep. Stack the soil neatly between the rows to form flat-topped ridges on which a catch crop may be grown. In the bottom place a 4 in. layer of rotted manure, tread it well down and cover with 5 in. or 6 in. of soil. Celery is a gross feeder and this preparation is important. Set two rows per trench, 9 in. apart, staggered with 1 ft. between the plants.

Cultivation. After thorough preparation of the trench, keep both the trenches and ridges weed free so that earthing up is not made difficult. Water is essential to good celery cultivation, and in dry ‘ weather water really thoroughly twice a week. Liquid manure occasionally is good. Any suckers that may appear must be removed. Begin earthing up in August. Turn the soil from the ridges against the plants, allowing the leaves to project. Smooth the surface, so that rain drains off. Another two earthings-up will be required later.

Varieties. Solid White, Giant White.

Quantity. Quarter of an In. of seed for 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. After frost the flavour is improved. Lift then as required.

CELERY, SELF BLEACHING

General. This can be grown on a flat bed and needs no earthing up.

Sow. February-March in boxes in heat or on a hotbed.

Plant. June, 9 in. apart in rows 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. This type needs plenty of manure and when digging plenty of organic matter should be added. Liquid Manure during the growing season is good.

Variety. Golden Self Bleaching. Season of use. Lift as required in the autumn after frosts.

CELERY CLEANED AND TRIMMED

When trimming the roots off celery, leave as much as possible of the root stock; this part has an excellent flavour and is particularly good eaten raw. A soft scrubbing brush is best for removing the soil from celery, which needs very careful washing, especially when soil-blanched.

CHICORY

General. This is a useful winter salad. The blanched leaves are eaten as lettuce.

Sow. May-June outside. Rows 1 ft. apart. Thin to 9 in. apart. – Cultivation. Grow it on good but not freshly manured soil. Iteep the ground hoed regularly. In the autumn, lift the roots for forcing. Pack them tightly, upright, in boxes with fine soil between and place them in a warm dark place. Beneath the staging of a greenhouse is a suitable place or a coal cellar or shed. The warmer the place the quicker they will be ready. The time varies from three to five weeks.

Variety. Large Brussels.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed will produce three hundred and fifty plants.

Season of use. Cut when 5 to 6 in. Jong. Ready during the winter.

COUVE TRONCHUDA

(SEA-KALE CABBAGE)

General. This crop serves a double use, for in addition to the cabbage-like heart that can be cut the lower leaves have thick fleshy ribs that may be used as sea-kale.

Sow. April in seed bed outside. Prick out 9 in. apart in a nursery bed when the seedlings are 3 in. high.

Plant. June, 2 ½ ft. apart. Cultivation. As for cabbage. Quantity. One-eighth of an oz. Of seed will produce two hundred and fifty plants.

Season of use. Winter.

CUCUMBER, FRAME

General. Although usually grown in glasshouses, this type of cucumber can be successfully cultivated in a frame on a hotbed.

Sow. February-March, one seed in a 3 in. pot and stand on a hotbed to promote rapid germination.

Plant. End of April and early May on a hotbed. One plant to a 4 ft. by 4 ft. light, placing it in the centre of the bed.

Cultivation. After planting, keep the frame closed for four days and then increase air gradually each day. Perfect drainage is essential as the plants have to be given so much water. All water given should be tepid if possible. To train, pinch out the growing point soon after planting. This will encourage side growths, four of which should be kept and trained towards the corners of the frame. As flowers appear, all male blossoms must be pinched out to avoid seedy cucumbers. Throughout the life of the plant, water must be freely given. In hot weather syringe twice daily, at midday and again at about 4 p.m. Liquid manure is also helpful to keep the plant growing strongly. Side shoots as they appear must be cut out, but in this process young ones can be left to replace old ones that have finished fruiting.

Variety. Telegraph.

Season of use. Summer.

CUCUMBER, RIDGE

General. Where there is no frame, this type of cucumber may be grown.

Sow. Mid-April in pots in a box covered with a piece of glass.

Plant. End of May.

Cultivation. Hillocks of old bonfire rubbish or fermenting organic waste are excellent. When six leaves have developed the plants should have their growing point pinched out to encourage several shoots to develop. Watering with plain water and manure water at intervals is the only attention needed.

Variety. Long Green.

Season of use. Summer.

EGG PLANT (AUBERGINE)

General. The egg plant is a delicious vegetable that is seldom grown. It takes up little space and is a welcome change to have occasionally. It is grown like tomatoes.

Sow. February in heat.

Plant. June, about 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. The base of a south wall is the best position, because here the plants can be kept warm. The soil should contain plenty of leaf-mould.

Varieties. Purple, White.

Season of use. August.

ENDIVE

General. The leaves are blanched and used as an addition to winter and summer salads.

Sow. April-August at intervals of about a fortnight. This will give a regular supply through the autumn and winter. Drills 1 ft. apart. Thin the seedlings to 15 in. apart.

Cultivation. No special treatment is required. To blanch, gather the leaves together and tie round with raffia or cover with flower pot or tile as. The plants must be quite dry for this operation. Blanching takes approximately a fortnight.

Varieties. Moss Curled, Round-leaved Batavian.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed for 50 ft. of drill.

Season of use. Summer and winter.

GARLIC

General. Leaves of garlic are often appreciated as an addition to the salad bowl, and as it takes up very little room it can be included where desired.

Plant. February, a in. deep and 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. Deeply dug, well-drained soil is all it needs.

Season of, use. Throughout the summer.

HORSE-RADISH

General. A large quantity of horseradish is not as a rule required in the ordinary small garden. It is a very accommodating kind of herb and will grow in any out-of-the-way corner.

Plant. Plant in February in rows 15 in. apart, ..the roots being 8 in. or 9 in. distance from each other; cover with 3 in. or 4 in. of soil.

Cultivation. It grows well in any soil, but gives the best results in well-cultivated land and does not mind being in the shade or in the sun. The roots should be lifted every other year during February, but if the roots are left undisturbed for several years they will not harm. For replanting, select straight roots about ro in. in length, each root should have a crown or bud and be planted crown end uppermost.

Varieties. Only the native Cochlearia armoracia is grown.

Season of use. Lift roots as required.

KALE

General. This is a grand green vegetable for, winter, which is improved by the frost. It can be cut again and again.

Sow. March-April in a seed bed outside.

Plant. June-July, 2 ft. to 2 ½ ft. apart.

Cultivation.- A heavy soil is best. Those of a light nature need vegetable matter added, but it is preferable to let kale follow a crop that has been well manured and not to add it just before this is planted. It will quite satisfactorily follow early potatoes. Apply 2 oz. Of superphosphate and oz. Of sulphate of potash to the soil before planting.

Varieties. Hardy Sprouting, Asparagus (this may be sown as late as June for spring use).

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed will produce 750 plants.

Season of use. Late winter and early spring.

KOHLRABI

General. This is a fine crop for dry soils and seasons and under such conditions can be grown as a substitute for turnips.

Sow. April-June where they are to grow, 9 in. apart in rows 15 in. apart.

Cultivation. They need nothing special beyond regular hoeing.

Varieties. Early Purple, Early White.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed will produce 750 plants.

Season of use. Use roots when they are half-grown for the best and mildest flavour. Older roots, although larger in size, are so tough that they cannot be eaten.

LEEK

General. This is a useful crop that can be used any time during the winter when other vegetables are scarce. Very hardy.

Sow. February, in heat. Prick out into boxes when r in. high. Mid-March in a cold frame. Transplant when large enough to handle into a further frame 8 in. apart.

Plant. R, Drills on manured ground 6 in. deep and x ft. apart ; set the plants 8 in. apart. 2, Holes 6 in. deep in rows 1 ft. apart and 8 in. from hole to hole ; drop the plant into the hole and do not fill in. 3, Trenches 9 in wide, 6 in. deep,1 ½ ft. apart ; this method is for the production of extra large leeks and so they should be set 1 ft. apart in the trench. For any of the above methods the soil must be deeply dug and Well manured.

Cultivation. Fertilizers are important during, the growing season. Soon after planting, apply r oz. Of superphosphate and j oz. Of sulphate of potash. A fortnight later give a dressing of nitrate of soda at the rate of oz. Per square yard.

Varieties. Giant Musselburgh, Prize-taker.

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed for 50 ft. of row., Season of use. October onwards.

LETTUCE

General. Lettuces can be had all the year round with the use of a greenhouse, cold frame, cloches and hotbed.

Sow. For succession : October in boxes in a cool greenhouse ; prick out into boxes; transplant to a hotbed in December. Plant out into a warm border in March. March onwards outside.

Cultivation. A well-cultivated soil with rotted vegetable refuse dug in, but near the surface. Hoeing is essential. Plenty of overhead watering during dry weather. A mulch of leaf-mould or grass clippings is useful.

Quantity. Half an oz. Of seed will sow 100 ft. of row.

Season of use. 1, February-March ; 2, April-May ; 3, May-June ; 4, July-October ; 5, November ; 6, winter.

MARROWS, VEGETABLE

General. This is a very easily grown vegetable that is particularly useful for preserves. It is quite accommodating and can be grown in any odd corner of the garden or allotment. Both bush and trailing forms are available.

Sow. March, in pots.

Plant. May, when frosts are over. Cultivation. An old bonfire or other heap makes a suitable home for the marrow plant. Its chief requirement is vegetable matter in a state of decay. A mulching of grass clippings given periodically during the summer helps to conserve moisture.

Varieties. Trailing: Long Green, Long White. Bush : Green, White.

Quantity. One trailing or three bush plants are sufficient for the average household.

Season of use. August until frost comes. Cut when young. Marrows can be preserved to make pickles and jam.

MINT

General. When once established it will always be in the garden. As it spreads very freely, mint should be given a corner to itself.

Plant. Spring or autumn, 1 ft. apart.

Ctiltivation. No special treatment is required. To force, lift a few roots during the winter and plant them in boxes which should be placed in the greenhouse. Even without heat the shoots are ready by March.

Season of use. May-August (naturally); December onwards forced.

MUSTARD AND CRESS

General. Popular salad crops that can be produced at any time.

Sow. Thickly over sifted soil pressed firm in boxes. Sow cress three or four days before mustard.

Cultivation. Keep moist and in a dark place to lengthen the stems. Bring into the light three or four days before cutting. Both need warm greenhouse in cold months.

Varieties. Cress : Plain or Curled. Mustard : White.

Season of use. All the year round.

MUSHROOMS

General. Where a cellar is available, it can be utilized for mushroom growing, or a dark, dry shed is suitable.

Cultivation. Beds are made any time from July to February. Stable manure is essential for mushroom cultivation and no substitute will do. A fresh supply should be obtained, and before using, the heap must be turned three times. After this, form a flat bed by packing solidly, treading it as necessary to a ‘depth of 8 in. When the temperature falls to 75 deg. F., spawning may be done. Insert pieces of spawn the size of a walnut at intervals of m ft. at the surface of the bed. After a few days, during which time the mycelium (fine white fibres) will penetrate, the bed can be cased with moist soil. The bed should be kept in the dark at all times. If there are any windows in the shed they must be covered, or if the beds are made beneath the staging in a greenhouse sacking should be hung down in front to shut out the light. After about a month, watering may be necessary if the soil appears to be getting dry. Avoid excessive moisture as this is fatal to mushrooms.

Season of use. Gathering will commence 7 or 8 weeks after spawning.

PARSLEY

General. New plants must be grown from seed at regular intervals of a few months as the young leaves are best and it is a biennial.

Sow. March for summer use. June for winter use. August for spring use.

Cultivation. It will grow on any soil and can be used as an edging to the vegetable plot. It germinates very slowly so that if the soil is full of weed seeds radishes may be sown with it so that the rows may be determined early. In severe weather, protection may be given to the winter crop by using cloches.

Season of use. All the year round.

PARSNIPS

General. The easiest root crop to grow, will succeed in any but stony soils.

Sow. End February and March in drills m ft. apart. Thin to 8 in. apart. Sow thickly as germination is poor. Alternatively, make holes 3 ft. deep and 3 in. in diameter with a crowbar. Fill these with sifted soil and sow two or three seeds on top. Thin these to one, leaving the strongest. The holes should be 2 ½ in. apart in rows 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. No special treatment is required, but fresh manure must not be given.

Varieties. Tender and True, Hollow-Crown.

Season of use. As required, November onwards. The flavour is improved after frost.

ONIONS

General. Every garden should contain a few onions, as they are particularly useful for flavouring many dishes. During spring the thinnings find favour for the , salad bowl. Autumn sown onions ripen ,earlier than spring sowings and are seldom attacked by onion fly.

Sow. 1, February in boxes in heat ; prick out into further boxes ; plant outside in rows 9 in. apart, with 6 in. between the plants, in May. 2, March and April, where they are to grow in rows 9 in: apart ; thin the seedlings to 6 in. apart. 3, August and September, where they are to grow in rows 9 in. apart ; thin to 6 in. apart in spring.

Cultivation. A very firm bed is essential, especially where seed is sown direct. Onions prefer a light sandy soil with a deep root run, but with no organic manure in the top 9 in. of soil. Wood ash spread on the surface before sowing is beneficial, together with 1 oz. Of sulphate of potash and a oz. Of superphosphate ten days before planting. In August the tops may be bent over to assist the ripening of the bulbs, the autumn sowings being done early in the month and the spring sowings towards the end.

Varieties. For spring salads, White Lisbon ; for summer use, Giant Rocca ; for storing, Bedfordshire Champion, Ailsa Craig (for sowing under glass).

Quantity. Quarter of an oz. Of seed for 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. Thinnings from the autumn sowing will be of use for salads in the spring, and the mature bulbs will be ready at the beginning of August for lifting and storing. Towards the end of August the spring-sown crop will be ready for lifting and storing for winter use. Remove the tops, clean off soil, and store in a dry place.

PEAS

General. Peas are the most popular vegetable and very easily grown. Best substitute for meat, full of protein.

Sow. February in a warm borderearlies ; March and June—earlies ; April —second earlies ; May—late. Drills 6 in. wide, 2 ft. to 6 ft. apart according to the varieties, two or three rows in each drill.

Cultivation. Peas are able to use atmospheric nitrogen and therefore need supplying only with potash and phosphate. Fork organic manure in bottom of drills. Flood drills with water in dry weather. Light soils are best. Apply 3 oz. Superphosphate and 1 oz. Of sulphate of potash before sowing. Hoeing is very important and mulching with lawn mowings alongside the rows is beneficial. Support peas with sticks of hazel placed either side of the rows or special nettings sold for this purpose.

Season of use. Earlies, eleven to twelve weeks after sowing ; second earlies, twelve to thirteen weeks after sowing ; laths, thirteen to fourteen weeks after sowing.

POTATOES

General. The importance of this crop cannot be over estimated. By sprouting potatoes prior to planting the crop will be ready for lifting a few weeks earlier. Seed should be the size of an egg and about 2 oz. In weight. It should be obtained from a locality farther north than your garden or allotment. By planting immune varieties yOu will not be troubled with wart disease.

Cultivation. During the winter, place

the potatoes on end in shallow boxes, setting the end with the most eyes uppermost. Stand the boxes in a light airy frostproof place to sprout. Allow only one or two shoots to grow ; all others’ should be rubbed off.

Plant. Mid-March to mid-April on the ridge system. Rows 2 ft. to 3 ft. apart, according to whether they are first or second earlies or main crop. The tubers should be 12 10 18 in. apart. The later the variety the farther apart they should be planted. To prepare the soil, dig deeply and leave ridged. Place manure in the bottom of the furrows and set the tubers in position on this. Cover them with soil to a depth of 4 in. to 6 in. so that the ridges now run over the tubers, and the furrows between the rows. When the shoots appear through

the soil and are 8 in. high they may be earthed up. Continue earthing at fortnightly intervals, adding I in. of soil. Spray with Bordeaux mixture in July and again in August if necessary against blight disease.

Varieties. First early : Arran Pilot (immune). Second early : Arran Banner (immune), Doon Star (immune). Main crop : Gladstone (immune), King Edward VII.

Quantity. 7 lb. Seed for 100 ft. row.

Season of use. First early, June ; second early, July ; main crop, August onwards. The main crop should be stored in a clamp or in sacks in a dry shed away from frost and light.

RADISHES

General. This is a quick maturing crop that can be sown as a catch crop between the main rows of vegetables or taken off ground before cabbage and broccoli is planted.

Sow. December-February on a hotbed ; March-September outside. The seed can be broadcast or sown in rows 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. Hoeing is the only important operation, and in dry weather give a regular supply of water.

Varieties. French Breakfast and Wood’s Frame (for hotbeds), Turnip-shaped red, Sparkler.

Quantity. One oz. Of seed will sow 100 ft. of row.

Season of use. All the year round.

SAGE

General. This is a useful herb, a few bushes of which may be grown in the flower border or any other part of the – garden.

Plant. Spring or autumn, 1 ½ ft. apart if more than one bush is required.

Cultivation. No special treatment is required. To renew, take cuttings in May.

Season of use. Shoots may be cut throughout the year, but if required for drying this should be done in August.

SALSIFY (VEGETABLE OYSTER)

General. The variety of winter vegetables is somewhat restricted and this crop makes a welcome change.

Sow. April. Drills 1 ft. apart. Thin the seedlings gradually to 8 in. apart.

Cultivation. A general fertilizer should be applied about fourteen days before sowing. A suitable mixture is made of one part sulphate of ammonia, two parts sulphate of potash and four parts superphosphate, applied at the rate of 4 oz. Per square yard.

Variety. Mammoth.

Quantity. Three-quarters of an oz. Of seed will sow I oo ft. of row.

Season of use. Dig as required throughout the winter.

RHUBARB

General. A few plants will provide sufficient sticks for the average family for several years.

Plant. March, 2i ft. apart.

Cultivation. Ground that is to receive rhubarb roots should be very deeply dug and well manured, as after this preparatory work the roots will not be disturbed for several years. During each winter a top dressing of rotted vegetable matter may be given. Any flower heads that appear must be removed.

Variety. Champagne.

Season of use. Pull sparingly the second season, and unless the crowns are very large none the first season after planting. In future years, rhubarb can be pulled until August. Do not on any account eat the foliage.

SEA-KALE

General. This vegetable is grown solely for the blanched stems.

Sow. March in a nursery bed. Drills ft. apart. Thin the seedlings to 6 in. apart.

Plant. Following March. Alternatively pieces of root 4 in. to 6 in. long can be planted, thick end uppermost, 15 in. apart in rows 2 ft. apart.

Cultivation. This crop requires plenty of manure in order to obtain large crowns for forcing. Dig the soil deeply, adding farmyard manure if available or any other organic material. Rotted seaweed is a valuable top dressing ; apply 4 in. thick. In autumn the plants are lifted and trimmed, leaving about 6 in. of the thick main root with the crown on the top. Those not required for immediate forcing can be packed in moist sandy soil in a shed. The remainder should be placed close together in a box with fine leafy soil between them and placed in a warm dark position, such as beneath the greenhouse staging. Here sacks will be necessary to exchide the light. The heads are cut when about 6 ins, long, a small portion of root being left attached.

Variety. Ivory White.

Season of use. Winter.

SHALLOTS

General. These are especially useful’ where attacks of onion fly are prevalent, as they are not affected by this pest. To economize in space they can be grown on the ridges between celery trenches, as they will be off the ground before the celery requires earthing up.

Plant. February-March. Push the bulbs into the soil to half their depth, 9 in. apart in rows 1 ft. apart.

Cultivation. The soil must be well drained, and for this reason too the celery ridges are particularly suitable. Before planting, spread wood ash over the surface of the soil together with 1 oz. Of sulphate of potash and 2 oz. Of superphosphate per square yard. At the end of July when the leaves turn brown the bulbs should be pulled up arid left on the soil to dry. Turn them over once or twice during this period.

It has been said of shallots: “Sow on the shortest day of the year and pull on the longest.”

Variety. Yellow Shallot.

Quantity. One hundred and thirty bulbs will plant 100 ft. row.

Season of use. July-March. The bulbs should be stored in a dry place.

SCORZONERA

General. Another winter root crop that gives variety when little else is available.

Sow. April. Drills 1 ft. apart. Thin the seedlings gradually to 8 in. apart.

Cultivation. Apply a general fertilizer a fortnight before sowing. A suitable mixture is made of one part sulphate of ammonia, two parts sulphate of potash and four parts superphosphate applied at the rate of 4 oz. Per square yard.

Quantity. Three-quarters of an oz. Of seed will sow 100 ft. of row.

Season of use. Dig as required throughout the winter.

SPINACH, SUMMER

General. This type is not hardy and quickly runs to seed. Sowings should be made little and often.

Sow. March-July. Drills 1 ft. apart. Thin the seedlings to 6 in. apart.

Cultivation. Plenty of organic matter should be dug into the soil, to hold the moisture. Fish and bonemeal mixed in equal quantities and applied at the rate of 4 oz. Per square yard is beneficial.

Variety. Long Standing Round. Quantity. Half an oz. Of seed will sow 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. Pick regularly. It does not matter how much is taken from the plant at one time.

SPINACH, WINTER

General. This is the hardy type, but in very severe weather the use of cloches may be advisable.

Sow. July-September. Drills 9in apart. Thin the seedlings to 4 in. apart.

Cultivation. Dig in organic matter prior to sowing. Apply fish and bone-meal mixed in equal quantities at the rate of 4 oz. Per sq. yd. Before sowing.

Variety. Prickly.

Season of use. Pick the largest leaves only as required during the winter.

SPINACH, PERPETUAL

(SPINACH BEET)

General. This type can be had all the year round, but is particularly useful for winter picking.

Sow. April and August to obtain a succession. Drills 15 in. apart. Thin the seedlings to x ft. apart.

Cultivation. No special treatment is required, but water in dry weather. Variety. Perpetual.

Quantity. Half an oz. Of seed will sow 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. Pick the leaves as required. Do this regularly in order to keep up the supply.

SWEET CORN

General. Sweet corn is a popular American dish. The plant should be better known in the UK : it can be raised without heat in the southern counties.

Sow. End of May.

Plant. One and a half ft. apart in rows

3 ft. apart when large enough to handle.

Cultivation. A well-worked and well drained soil is the chief requirement with an ample supply of water. Occasional applications of a general fertilizer will speed up growth and so reduce the time required to cook the cobs.

Variety. Improved Sweet Corn. Season of use. August.

SWEDE

General. A very useful vegetable in times of emergency.

Sow. March and April. Drills 1 ft. apart. Thin the seedlings 9 in. apart.

Cultivation. If possible, swedes should be sown on land that has been manured for a previous crop. The soil should be friable and the application of a general fertilizer before sowing is beneficial.

Varieties. Purple Top, Bronze Top.

Quantity. Half an oz. Of seed will sow 50 ft. of row.

Season of use. August, pulled from the ground as required ; autumn onwards, stored roots. Roots are stored like potatoes in a clamp.

TOMATO

General., Although tomatoes are generally grown under glass, they may be planted in a frame or on a warm border against a south wall of the house. Any tubs in the garden may also be utilized where space is limited. For outdoor culture, choose an earlier ripening variety.

Sow. February-March in heat in pots. If you have no means of raising your own plants they can be bought during May. Choose sturdy, dark green plants ; refuse leggy thin. Specimens. Avoid any with side shoots.

Plant. If you have a glasshouse in which they are raised, leave them inside until the first flower truss has formed. In this way ripe fruit will be ready a week or two earlier. Under ordinary conditions, plant them outside at the end of May, when all fear of frost has passed. Set them 15 in. apart.

Cultivation. The soil should contain plenty of organic matter. Good drainage is important. Before planting, apply 1 oz. Of sulphate of potash and 4 oz. Of bone flour per square yard. Apply liquid manure every week unless the weather is dull, when it should be given less frequently. Train the plants up canes, removing all side shoots as they grow. After four trusses have set, remove the growing point of the plant, as no further fruit would mature under outdoor conditions. During August the lower leaves may be removed. To grow tomatoes in a cold frame the same soil treatment should be given. Set the plants in position in a row along the front of the frame s in. apart and as they grow tie them to bamboo canes set in position one to each plant from front to back and 6 in. from the glass.

Variety. Sunrise.

Season of use. August and September. Ripe fruit may be bottled whole or as pulp and green fruit used for chutney.

THYME

General. This is a useful herb for seasoning and can be grown as an edging plant in any part of the garden, or even in the rock garden.

Sow. April.

Cultivation. No special treatment required.

Season of use. When the flowers appear, cut the shoots and hang them up to dry in a light shed.

TURNIP

General. This vegetable belongs to the cabbage family and in a rotation of crops should be on the same plot, as both are subject to club root.

Sow. February on a hotbed, drills 6 in. apart, thin to 4 in. March-April outside, drills x ft. apart, thin the seedlings to 6 in. apart. June and July outside for winter supplies.

Cultivation. After digging, apply lime at the rate of 4 oz. Per square yard. A fortnight before seed sowing, apply a general fertilizer at the rate of 4 oz. Per square yard. A suitable mixture is made of one part sulphate of ammonia, two parts sulphate of potash and four parts superphosphate.

Varieties. Early Snowball (for growing on hotbeds), Golden Ball, Red Globe, Chirk Castle (for winter storage).

Quantity. Half an oz. Of seed will sow 100 ft. of row.

Season of use. Pull as required from early sowings. The main crop roots may be stored in a clamp.

CONCLUSION

The foregoing cultural directions will give the beginner a useful guide for the time at which the various operations should be performed. Naturally, all dates are subject to variation according – to locality and altitude.

Never put off autumn digging until “next week” ; a thorough tidying up of all empty space in the kitchen garden will save weeks if the following spring is ‘ unusually wet, as the first spell of good weather can be used for sowing instead of catching up arrears of preparation of the ground.

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