balance, disorders of

Difficulties in keeping one’s balance are the consequences of disturbances to one or more of three systems: the organ of balance, the eyes and certain receptors in muscles and joints which perceive the position of various parts of the body in relation to themselves. When informa- tion from these three systems is in phase, we are hardly aware that we know the position in which we stand, but if the information is out of phase, problems arise, particularly in the form of vertigo. The cause of balance disturbances is on three different levels: firstly in the organ of balance and its connection with the brain, for example labyrinthitis, Meniere’s disease, concussion or inflammation of the nerve controlling balance. A second group of causes includes disorders that affect the organ of balance in one way or another: anaemia, high or even low blood pressure, infectious diseases, and some medicines and alcohol. The third group are abnormalities of the other systems that affect balance (eyes, joints), such as double vision or wear on the vertebrae of the neck. Balance disturbances have various symptoms, vertigo being an important one. It can take various forms: the feeling that one’s surroundings are spinning, of standing in a moving lift, of falling, lightness in the head and unsteady legs. Inflammation of the glans penis, usually associated with inflammation of the foreskin. It is most often caused by inadequate hygiene, which allows bacteria and smegma to accumulate in the groove behind the glans, leading to inflammation involving redness and swelling of the glans, and usually also the foreskin. The patient complains of pain, itching and an odorous discharge. Simple therapy is thorough washing of the foreskin and glans with soap and water. Inflammation usually clears up within 24 hours. If the foreskin is too tight to be drawn back (phimosis), surgery may be needed to widen or remove it (circumcision). If the condition is caused by a venereal disease such as syphilis or gonorrhoea, treatment with antibiotics is necessary.

Similar Posts