Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is an examination of a deceased person to determine or clarify the disorder or injury that caused death. It is sometimes called ‘diagnosis of death’. It is performed by a pathologist, and includes dissection and inspection of the organs, possibly accompanied by examination of tissues under a microscope. In some cases it is part of the legal process surrounding sudden or accidental death, murder or suicide. In other cases an autopsy may be performed when the original diagnosis was uncertain or the cause of death rare, thereby hopefully adding to the accumulation of important knowledge of serious disorders to the long-term benefit of other patients. Permission from the next of kin is normally required for an autopsy, except when it is ordered by the coroner or other legal authority. The way a given disorder is dealt with can differ from hospital to hospital. Nowadays, attempts are being made to achieve a more uniform approach, among other reasons to facilitate comparisons of the results obtained with a given treatment. An example is the procedure which a doctor must follow if he finds a lump in a breast examination or through mammography . If the lump is suspected to be malignant (pink arrows) the patient is admitted to hospital , where it is removed for examination . If the tissue is indeed found to be malignant the breast or part of it is then removed. If the tissue is benign this is not necessary.