Bartholin’s glands are found on both sides of the lateral vaginal walls. They generally secrete part of the vagina’s protective lubricant. Occasionally the gland can become inflamed and/or the duct that carries the secretions out can become blocked.

Bartholin’s cysts present as painful swellings or pea-like lesions on either side of the vaginal opening. These are often noticed on intercourse.


Any swelling in the genital area that does not respond to basic treatment after 48hr should be viewed by a GP or gynaecologist.

Apply hot and cold compresses to the area.

The homeopathic remedy Hepar sulphuris calcarium 30, four pills every 2hr can be utilized.

Intercourse should be avoided.

Avoid pressure on the area. Squeezing will not release the blockage.

If the problem persists the orthodox world would encourage the use of antibiotics, but before you use these, consult a complementary medical practitioner for herbal or homeopathic alternatives.

An operative procedure is rarely required but if it is then pre- and post-operative precautions should be taken up which the sperm travel into the uterus in search of an egg.

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is an aggressive tumour if left untreated and a regular Papanicolaou test, more commonly known as a Pap smear or simply a smear, is essential. In the UK the National Health Service encourages a Pap smear every three to five years. This is a bureaucratic decision that has no medical standing. A cancer can develop overnight, and waiting three years for a diagnosis is liable to be a fatal decision. I recommend that a woman has a smear every year after she has lost her virginity and every six months if she changes her sexual partner during that time.

The medical world divides changes in the cells of the cervix into precancerous and cancerous cells. Precancerous cells are further divided up into dyskaryotic cells – cells that look, under the microscope, unusual but not cancerous – and cervical interstitial neoplasia I, II and III cells with premalignant changes. The numbers I, II and III represent the depth to which the precancerous changes are occurring in the walls of the os from where the smear is taken.

If any unusual cells are found then a further investigation, called a colposcopy, is performed. This is a specialized scope that can travel into the opening of the cervix and takes biopsies to establish the severity of the changes.

There is an association between two types of human papilloma virus and cervical can-

Have regular check-ups and, if you can afford it, ensure that the smear is examined by a pathologist as well as a laboratory technician.

Consider using a barrier method of contraception with new sexual partners.

Infrequent but regular douching .

Cervical incompetence

The cervix is the lower part of the uterus found at the top of the vagina. In the centre of the cervix lies an opening called the os, which allows access for the sperm to the eggs travelling down the Fallopian tube into the womb. The os is generally closed, except at childbirth and under hormonal and nervous controls during intercourse.

Cervical incompetence can occur for traumatic reasons and represents the condition of a persistently open and loose cervical os. This is in no way a problem until childbearing is required, when a patent os may allow the product of conception to fall out of the uterus.


If you are advised that your cervix is incompetent then a gynaecological opinion must be sought. There is no complementary or orthodox treatment other than surgical treatment, where a Shirodkar stitch is placed around the opening and tightened.

As with any operation .

Cervical interstitial neoplasia Cervical interstitial neoplasia is a term that describes a precancerous change in the cervix. Cervical smears should isolate these changes, which are more likely to become cancerous than dysplasia and should be treated accordingly.

Cervical interstitial neoplasia is divided into groups I, II and III. They do not represent the severity of the changes but merely the depth to which the pre-cancerous cells are buried in the walls of the os .


Cone biopsy

This operative procedure removes a cone-shaped wedge around the cervical os opening to remove the pre-cancerous changes that have occurred. This technique has been superseded by the use of laser therapy and is only used in certain circumstances.

Cervical polyps

Polyps are overgrowths of mucous membrane and those that protrude through the cervical opening are termed cervical polyps. They have a slightly increased chance of becoming cancerous, more so than any other part of the mucous membrane and they may bleed which can cause concern.

Cervical polyps are generally discovered on a routine examination because they are usually symptomless. Gynaecologists and Gps will have a tendency to suggest their surgical removal and this should only be considered if complementary medical techniques fail to resolve the problem. Any polyp is considered to be an excess of damp in the body and correct dietetics and homeopathic and herbal treatments are often effective.

A pre-cancerous change should be dealt with by a complementary medical practitioner with experience in this area.

Unless there is a reduction in the CIN number, ie from CIN 3 to CIN 2, within two months of complementary medical treatment, then the orthodox treatment of laser therapy should be considered. If there is a change then continue with treatment and test again.

To avoid this situation in the first place and certainly if a condition of CIN has been described, condoms or a cap should be used when having intercourse.

High-dose antioxidants and a health diet must be discussed with your practitioner.

See Vaginal douching and replace the cider vinegar with a teaspoonful of Arnica and Calendula fluid extracts.


Obtain a gynaecological opinion but avoid surgery except as a last resort.

Consult with a complementary medical practitioner with experience in this area.

Discuss with your preferred practitioner a low refined sugar diet and ensure that you are not dehydrated. Consider the homeopathic remedy Thuja 30, one dose three times a day for two weeks, or preferably seek advice from a homeopathic prescriber.

Consider following the Hay diet .

Ayurvedic, Tibetan and Chinese medicine may be successful in removing the excess damp that creates polyps.

If the above recommendations do not solve the problem then surgical intervention should be considered because a polyp may represent a higher risk of uterine cancer.

Cervical smears A cervical smear is a simple although invasive procedure. The cervix is one of the more common areas for cancerous changes to take place and examination of this part of the uterus is a recommended process.

Bureaucracy has governed that a cervical smear should be performed every 3-5 years, depending on which part of the country the woman lives and the habits of the general practice. I believe this to be too long a gap. A cancer may develop overnight and waiting three years will certainly allow a spread of this disease. Sexually active women should have a cervical smear every year and virgins or non-sexually active women should have this investigation performed every 18 months. After menopause, a two-yearly gap is acceptable. I recommend a cervical smear within three or four months of changing a sexual partner. Women with more than one sexual partner should have a cervical smear every six months.


Dysplasia is the medical term for abnormal cells. It is not a precancerous condition, although it may require more frequent examinations to ensure that precancerous changes do not occur .