Trees and shrubs for gardens

Abies (Silver Firs)

Easily distinguished from the Spruces (Picea) by pulling off a leaf. In the case of firs the leaf comes away clean; but in the spruce it tears away a small piece of bark with it. The female cones of Abies are always erect.


A. brachyphylla. Hardy and adaptable species from Japan.

A. concolor. A Mexican species with beautiful glaucous foliage and purple cones.

A. nobilis. Vigorous species with glaucous green leaves.

A. Norinanniana. Handsome species from Asia Minor, with glossy green leaves.

A. Pinsappo. Very hardy and distinct. Recommended for limestone and chalky districts.

A. Vcilchii. Beautiful Japanese species of pyramidal habit. Leaves dark glossy green, blue-whito beneath. Not a success on chalky soils.

Abutilon vitifolium. Beautiful Chilean shrub with vine-like leaves and single cup-shaped flowers, resembling single hollyhock, in shades of pale blue or mauve, varying with the season. Likes a dry soil and warm position,


Magnificent shrubs and trees, mostly from AustraUa, where they are known as Wattles or Mimosa. Not hardy, but thrive in the warm maritime counties. Elegant foliage and yellow flowers.


A. Baileyana. Handsome and free flowering, glaucous leaves. Nearly hardy.

A. iongifolia. A quick-growing species with very fragrant flowers. Thrives in sandy, as well as calcareous soil.

A. podalyriajolia. Early and continuous flowering, remaining in bloom for about 3 months. One of the finest, with striking silvery-blue foliage, and flowers very bright yellow.

Acer (Maples). Trees and shrubs, mostly deciduous, with attractive foliage, especially in the autumn. Hardy, and thrive in ordinary garden soil, which should not be allowed to dry out, or the rich autumnal colouring will be lacking. PRINCIPAL SPECIES:

A. circinatiun. Vine Maple of N. America. Foliage orange to deep rod. Suitable for small gardens.

A. griseum. Exceptionally beautiful. Chinese species, with mahogany-coloured bark, which peels off in autumn, revealing the new bark of an attractive orange colour. Handsome green leaves, with dove-coloured reverse, gloriously coloured during October.

A. Henryi. Choice Chinese maple with dull purple foliage turning to vivid red in autumn.

A. japonicum anreum. Beautiful soft golden foliage all summer.

A. palmatum atropurpurcum. Very fine Japanese maple. Foliage dark red in spring and summer, turning to bright red in autumn.

Ailanthus glandulosa (Tree of Heaven). Hardy quick-growing tree, with lovely foliage, suitable for subtropical gardening. Useful for town gardens. Ordinary garden soil.

IEsculus (Horse-Chestnut). Too well-known to need description. 2E. carnea var. Briottii. Finest form of the Red Horse-Chestnut, suitable for small gardens.

M. Hippocastanum flore pleno. The double flowers last longer than the type, and as they do not produce nuts or conkers, it is the best variety for street planting or in public places.

Almond. See PRUNUS.

Alnus (Alder). Valuable trees for damp places; will also thrive in deep loam.


A. cordata. Italian Alder. Thrives in all soils, including chalky ones.

A. glutinosa. Common Alder. Good for boggy places.

A. incana. Grey Alder. Undersides of leaves grey. Not particular as to soil. Will thrive in cold damp places.

Aloysia citriodora. See LTPPIA.

Althaea. See HIBISCUS.

Amelanchier (Snowy Mespilus). Deciduous trees and shrubs with masses of white flowers in spring, and attractive autumn foliage. Ordinary garden soil. PRINCIPAL SPECIES:

A. alnifolia. A very ornamental shrub.

A. caTiadensis. Foliage rich soft red in autumn. Edible black fruit.

Ampelopsis Veitchii. See Vrns INCONSTANS VEITCHH..

Andromeda polifolia. A Bog Rosemary of this country. Pretty shrub 2 ft. high with clusters of pure pink bell-shaped flowers during May.

Anopterus glandulosa. A very choice evergreen shrub with dark green foliage, and beautiful white campanulate flowers during April and May.

Aquifolium. See BERBERIS.

Aralia chinensis. A deciduous Chinese tree or shrub, 12 ft. high, of tropical appearance with leaves 3-1 ft. long. Thrives anywhere. There are variegated forms.

Araucaria imbricata. Commonly known as the Monkey Puzzle. A tree of unique appearance. Ordinary garden soil. Very useful as a wind resister.

Arbor -vitaB. See THUYA.

Arbutus Unedo. Strawberry Tree, so called from the orange-red fruits, resembling strawberries in appearance. Flowers white or pinkish, pitcher-shaped, from October to December. A very beautiful and attractive evergreen tree.

Aristolochia Sipho. A rampant climber, known as Dutchmans Pipe. Flowers yellow and brown.

Artemisia abrotanum. Lads Love or Southernwood, of South Europe. Fragrant, soft-wooded, sun-loving deciduous shrub, with very aromatic, finely-divided foliage.


Ash, Mountain. See PYRUS AUCU-

Aucuba japonica. Evergreen shrub with glossy green leaves and scarlet berries. Will thrive in any soil and position, oven under trees. But they do not berry so freely in shade as in sun. As the sexes are on different plants, both sexes must be sown to secure a good crop of berries.


Azara microphylla. A very elegant evergreen shrub or small tree, with frondlike branches of small, glossy leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, with vanilla-like fragrance, perceptible some distance from the bush. In favourable seasons the flowering season begins in February, continues until April or May.


Balm of Gilead. See POPULUS CANDI-CANS.

Barabuseffi. The hardy grasses popularly known as Bamboos! Are divided into three classes, and some of the most distinct and useful are enumerated hereunder. They thrive in good garden soil, in partial shade, protected from cold winds. Early autumn or late spring are the best times for planting, May being the ideal month.

ARUNDINARIA SECTION: B. anceps. Beautiful species, with bright green leaves glaucous beneath.

B. Falconeri. Extremely elegant, with feathery foliage. Best in mild districts.

B. humilis. Dwarf, 2-5 ft.; vivid green leaves.

B. nitida. The Queen of Bamboos, and very hardy. Slender, purplish canes and small, dark green leaves. Best in half shade.


B. quadrangular is. Distinct species with square or four-sided stems.

B. aurea. Pale yellow canes, bright green leaves, glaucous beneath.

B. Henonis. A beautiful and hardy Bamboo with luxuriant foliage.

B. nigra. Hardy and slow growing. Stems at first green, changing to black. Foliage dark green, in plume-like masses.

B. viridi-glaucescens. Graceful species with yellowish-green canes and pendulous plumes of bright green foliage.

Barberry. See BERBERIS.


Beech. See FAGUS.

Berberidopsis corolllna. Coral Plant of Chile. An ideal climber for sheltered, shady walls, remarkable for its dark leathery leaves, glaucous beneath, and pendent racemes of coral to crimson flowers.

Berberis (Barberry). Evergreen and deciduous shrubs, valuable in spring when in flower, and again in autumn with their richly-coloured berries and magnificent foliage. Ordinary garden soil. Perfectly hardy unless marked tender.


B. aggregata Prattii. Deciduous clusters of bright coral fruits, and vivid scarlet foliage in autumn.

B. aquifolium Moseri. Extremely fine form of the well-known evergreen Mahonia, with foliage of green, orange, and brilliant red throughout the year.

B. Darwinii. One of the most popular. Flowers orange-yellow. Good hedge plant.

B. Oiraldii. Foliage bright red in spring, becoming dazzling scarlet in autumn.

B. japonica. Leaves up to 18 in. long. Flowers lomon-yellow, deliciously scented during February and March. Best in semi-shade.

B. melcongensis. One of the best. Foliage in autumn, scarlet, gold and orange, with buff-yellow revorse.

B. nepalensis. A tender species with leaves over 2 ft. in length. Flowers yellow during March and April.

B. Sargcntiana. One of the most beautiful evergreen species. Leaves dark green, 5 in. long, becoming bronze and scarlet in autumn. Berries blue-black. Good on chalk soils.

B. stcnopliylla. Arching branches covered with sweetly-scented golden-yellow flowers in spring. Wonderful in a mass, and fine for hedges.

B. Thunbergii. A popular Japanese species witli yellow, suffused red, flowers in spring, and bright red berries in autumn. Foliage turns brilliant scarlet.

B. vulgaris. Common Barberry. A beautiful native shrub with masses of yellow flowers, followed by coral-like berries.

B. Wilsonai. One of the most exquisite of dwarf, deciduous shrubs. Perhaps the finest of the Chinese Barberries. Flower- golden yellow in the utmost profusion, followed by clusters of berries, at first cream, gradually suffusing with pink until they become bright coral.

Betula (Birch). Hardy and ornamental trees, remarkable for their elegant habits and richly-coloured trunks.


B. japonica. Trunk silvery-white, paling to orange.

B. papyriera. One of the whitest barked Birches.

B. verrucosa elegans pendula. The Common Weeping Birch.

Bignonia capreolata. Vigorous semi-evergreen climber for south or west wall. Flowers orange-red, funnel-shaped in June.

Bilberry. See VACCINITXM.

Billardiera longiflora. Twining evergreen for warm, sheltered walls. Flowers yellowish, dark blue fruits.

Birch. See BETULA.

Blackthorn. See PRTTNUS SPINOSA.

Bottle Brush. See CALLISTEMON.

Box. See Buxus.

Brachyglottis repanda. Handsome and distinct for warm districts, with leaves 8-10 in. long. Creamy-yellow flowers in summer, with the fragrance of Mignonette.

Bramble. See RTTBTJS.


Bruckenthalia spiculifera. Heathlike plant, 6 inches high, with pink flowers. Likes a peaty soil, but thrives in loam.

Buckeye. See iEscuxus.

Buckthorn. See RIIAMNUS.

Buddleia. Deciduous flowering shrubs of easy cultivation in ordinary garden soil. They like full sun.


B. alternifolia. Distinct Chinese species with long arching branches wreathed with delicate lilac, fragrant flowers, from June to September.

B. Golvcllei. Rampant slirub, 15 ft. Large rose-coloured flowers. Rather tender.

B. globosa. The Golden Ball Tree, 15-20 ft., with globular heads of honey-scented bright yellow flowevs in June, like little oranges.

B. variabilis magnifica. Large panicles of violet-purple flowers from July to autumn. Cut hard back in the spring.

Butchers-Broom. See Rusers

Buxus (Box). Evergreen trees and shrubs thriving in almost any soil and situation.


B. Balearica. A large-leaved species from the Balearic Islands.

B. sempervirens. The Common Tree Box so much used for hedges.

B. suffrulicosa. Box edging.

B. s. variegata. Young growths golden, becoming silvery.

Calycanthus floridus (Allspice). Interesting deciduous shrub, with leaves, wood and roots fragrant of camphor. Flowers reddish-purple, during June and July.

Camellia. Magnificent flowering evergreen shrubs and trees. Their value in gardens and woodland is much underestimated. Even if they never flowered they would be well worth growing for their beautiful, lustrous, deep green foliage. They liko a peaty soil and partial shade, and they should not be allowed to get dry during the growing season.

PRINCIPAL SPECIES: 0. japonica. Flowers red, 3-4 in. across. Parent of many fine hybrids, the following being some of the most distinct and beautiful:

C. j. Chandlcri elegans. Semi-double, pink flowers.

C. j. Donklelaarii. Very hardy. Semi-double, deep red flowers.

C. j. Lady Clare. Semi-double bright pink flowers. One of the most beautiful.

G. j. lalifolia. Flowers deep red, the last Camellia to flower.

G. j. magnoliatflora. Exquisite shell-pink flowers. Best on a north-west wall, or sheltered, semi-shady corner.

G. reticulata. A superb Camellia, and one of the most beautiful flowering shrubs or trees in cultivation. Flowers 5-6 in. across, composed of two rows of petals of a glowing rosy-crimson. Tender while young, best on semi-shaded wall. Glorious in cold house planted out, or in tubs or large pots.

Caragana arborescens. The Pea Tree of Siberia. Hardy deciduous tree (15 ft), with yellow pea-shaped flowers in May. Likes a sunny position.

Carmicha2lia. Deciduous flowering shrubs with pea-shaped flowers. They love sun and hate lime.


C. auslralis. Fragrant lilac flowers from May to August.

C. Enysii. Pygmy species for rock gardens. Flowers violet.

Carpentaria California. Lustrous foliage, and large, fragrant, snow white anemone-shaped flowers during June and July. Fine seaside shrub; inland requires a south wall. Evergreen.

Carpinus (Hornbeams). Small genus of deciduous hardy trees allied to the Beeches, thriving in poor or chalky soils.


C. betulus. Common Hornbeam. A native tree, useful for hedging.

C. pyramidalis. A form of perfect pyramid shape.

Carya (Hickory). Stately deciduous trees with beautiful foliage, turning yellow in autumn, and picturesque grey trunks. Deep loamy soil. In planting be very careful not to damage the tap root.


C. cordiformis. One of the most satisfactory.

G. pecan. Fast growing, and very hardy. Resembles the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus glandulosa.

Caryopteris. Hardy, deciduous flowering shrubs with grey verbena-like foliage, and spikes of blue flowers during late summer and autumn. Plant in ordinary garden soil and in sunny positions. PRINCIPAL SPECIES:

Q. mastacanthus. Chinese shrub with small heads of bright violet-bluo flowers in September and October. 3 ft.

C. mongolica. Brilliant blue flowers from July to October. The most beautiful, but tender.

C. tangutica. Similar to G. mastacanthus, but with flowers of deeper blue. Excellent in calcareous soil.

Cassia. Handsome flowering shrubs for warm districts.


C. corymbosa. Clusters of bright yellow flowers during summer.

Ft marylandica. Racemes of yellow flowers with purple anthers, during latter part of July to October. Hardy in all but very severe winters.

Castanea satira ( Sweet or Spanish Chestnut). A noble native tree, with but little floral beauty, but valuable as timber trees and for their edible nuts. The variety known as macrocarpa (Marron de Lyon) produces the best and largest nuts.

Catalpa bignonioides. Indian Bean Tree, of the eastern U.S.A. Clusters of white flowers, with yellow and purple markings, resembling small Gloxinias. It blooms in July and August, and is quite the most beautiful flowering tree at that season. There is a variety called aurea, with leaves of a rich yellow.

Ceanothus. Very beautiful summer-and autumn-flowering shrubs for sunny

borders or walls. Azureus and its varieties are quite hardy, and should be pruned back every spring to encourage strong flowering growths. Ordinary garden soil. PRINCIPAL SPECIES AND VARIETIES:

C. azureus. Mexican species with beauti-ful deep blue flowers in panicles, 3-G in. long, from July until frost. Parent of many garden hybrids. Deciduous.

C. denlalus. Evergreen Californian species with clusters of bright blue flowers from June to August. A good wall plant.

C. hybridus. Gloire do Versailles. Very large panicles of deep powder-blue flowers. One of the most popular.

C. h. Henri Defosse. Beautiful variety with rich dark blue flowers, but a poor grower.

C. h. Marie Simon. Rose-pink.

C. papillosus. Evergreen Californian species for south or west walls. Flowers a beautiful shade of blue.

C. rigidua. Evergreen Californian species with deep purplish-blue flowers during April and May. An excellent wall Bhrub.

G e d r u s (Cedar). Noble coniferous trees, the Cedar of Lebanon being a well-known example. They like a deep, loamy soil.


C. atlantica glauca. One of the loveliest of all conifers, with leaves of a beautiful pale blue-grey.

C. deodora. Graceful tree of broadly pyramidal form and somewhat pendulous branches. Leaves are grey or glaucous green.

G. Libani. Cedar of Lebanon. One of the most noble and stately of trees.

Celastrus articulatus. Vigorous climbing shrub of striking beauty during November, December and January, when the green fruits split open, and reveal the golden-yellow inner surface and shining scarlet-coated seeds. Excellent for climbing up an old tree. Perfectly hardy. Plant in loamy soil.

Cephalotaxus drupacea. Chinese evergreen shrub 10-12 ft., suggesting a glorified Yew. Most useful for growing under the shade and drip of other trees. It thrives in any kind of soil, including calcareous.

Ceratostigma Willmottianum. A very beautiful Chinese shrub 3-4 ft. high and as much across, with rich blue plumbago-like flowers from July to October. Perfectly hardy. Plant in ordinary soil in full sun.

Cercldiphyllum japonicum. Hardy deciduous Japaneso tree or large shrub of no floral beauty, but with splendid autumn foliage of rich red and yellow. Thrives on chalk. Best on margin of a stream or lake.

Cercis siliquastrum (Judas Tree). A beautiful tree, crowded in May with purplish-rose pea-shaped flowers. Likes full sun.

Cestrum elegans. Semi – evergreen wall shrubs from Mexico, with long, bright red, funnel-shaped flowers over a long period.

Cherry. See PRUNUS. Chestnut, Horse. See AESCULUS. Chestnut, Sweet. See CASTANEA. Chimonanthus fragrans (Calycanthus pra:cox). Chinese Winter Sweet. Flowers pale yellow, stained purple, exquisitely fragrant; a few twigs will scent a room. Best on south or west wall, where it will bloom from December to March.

Chionanthus virginica. Deciduous tree with white fragrant flowers in June, foliage bright yellow in autumn. Likes a moist position. 10 ft.

Choisya ternata. Mexican Orange Blossom. Handsome evergreen shrub with glossy leaves and clusters of fragrant white flowers, resembling orange blossom, from March to May. Best against a sunny wall, except in warm maritime districts, where it forms a large bush, and makes a beautiful hedge.

Christmas Tree. See PICEA EXCELSA.

Christs Thorn. See TRACIIYCAIUUS.

Cistus. Rock Roses. Hardy evergreen shrubs, revelling in full sun and poor sandy soils, and flowering over a long period during spring and summer.

C. corbariensis. Hardy, 3 ft. White flowers tinted crimson.

C. ladaniferus. Gum Cistus. 4 ft. Gummy foliage and large (4 inch) pure white flowers with maroon blotch to each petal. There is a pure white form.

C. laurifolius. Hardy, 6-8 ft. White flowers.

G. Lorethi, 2 ft. Flowers white, stained crimson. One of the best.

C. purpureus. Flowers large rosy-crimson with chocolate blotches. Needs sheltered positions. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Clematis. Beautiful and popular climbing plants. They like full sun and well-drained soil, especially of a peaty nature. They also thrive in chalky soils.

C. Armandii. Chinese species with white flowers, 2 inches across, in April.

C. Flammula. Masses of pure white, fragrant flowers from August to October.

G. indivisa. Beautiful New Zealand species for mild districts. Evergreen. Flowers white, 2-4 inches across.

G. monlana. Beautiful Himalayan climber with starry white flowers in May.

C. tangutica. Chinese species with yellow flowers in late summer.

LARGE-FLOWERED HYBRrD CLEMATIS Jackmanii type Large flowers from July to October. Cut back in February to within about 12 inches of the old stems.

Comtesse de Bouchard, beautiful soft carmine-rose. 2I @!Ps! Queen, rich velvety purple.

The President, dark plum-purple. Lanuginosa type Successional flowering from Juno to October. Prune lightly in February. Flowers very large.

Blue Gem, sky blue.

Crimson King, rich crimson.

Fairy Queen, pale flesh, pink bar.

King Edward VII, rich violet, crimson bars.

Lady Caroline Neville, French white, mauve-pink bar.

Lady Norlhcliffe, lavender.

Nellie Moser, blush, carmine bar. Patens type Flowers produced during May and June on the old wood, and the only pruning needed is to remove dead wood.

Lady Londesborough, silvery-grey.

Lasurslern, large flowers, deep blue.

Miss Bateman, white.

Viticella type

Large flowers, freely produced from July to September. Prune lightly in February.

Ascotiensis, azure.

Lady Betty Balfour, deep purple.

Madame Grange, crimson-purple.

Ville de Lyon, carmine-crimson.

Clerodendron. Deciduous shrubs with blue berries in autumn.

G. Fargesii, 10 ft. Young foliage purple, flowers white, fragrant, followed by pretty blue berries in autumn.

C. trichotomum, 10-12 ft. Flowers white, fragrant from July to September; berries dark blue.

Clethra. Hardy, deciduous and evergreen shrubs with fragrant lily-of-the-valley-like flowers. They need a peaty or lime-free soil.

G. alnifolia. Fragrant white floAvers in late summer. Likes moist or swampy soils. 6 ft.

C. arborea. Lily of the Valley Tree from Madeira. Only suited to the

mildest districts or cold house. Very beautiful long racemes of white flowers.

C. Delavayi. A grand new Chinese species, with long spikes of large white flowers. Needs protection.

Clianthus punicens. The Lobster-Claw of New Zealand. A magnificent semi-evergreen shrub for south or west walls. Clusters of bright scarlet flowers 2-3 in. long. 8-12 ft.

Colutea arborescens. Bladder Senna. Deciduous shrub with yellow, pea-like flowers throughout the summer and early autumn, followed by bladderlike pods. Ordinary soil.

Convolvulus cneorum. Attractive silver-foliaged shrub, 2-3 ft., with white tinged pink flowers throughout the summer. Very good seaside shrub. Not quite hardy inland.

Cordyline australis (Draeama). Ornamental plants only suitable for out of doors in mild districts, imparting a tropical effect. Valuable seaside plants, standing wind well. Very effective for avenues, groups, or as single specimens. Although not hardy in the general meaning of the word, it will bear about 15 degrees of frost with impunity.

Cortaderia argentea (Gynerium). Pampas Grass. The most popular and beautiful of all hardy grasses. Slender arching leaves, and large silvery-grey plumes. Very useful for indoor decoration.

Cornus. Deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs esteemed for their flowers and their foliage. They like good loamy soil.

C. capitata. Deciduous or semi-evergreen tree 30-40 ft. high. Hardy, but only soen at its best in mild districts. Flowers insignificant; the charm of the inflorescence being the four to six sulphur-yellow bracts about 2 in. long, which extend under the real flower. Fruit strawberry-like about 1 in. across. A beautiful tree where it thrives.

C. Kousa. A Japanese species, deciduous, with large creamy-white bracts, about in. long, and strawberry-like fruits. Attractive autumn foliage. The best all-round species.

G. mas. Clusters of yellow flowers on leafless branches during January and February, followed by large red cherrylike berries. A beautiful tree, both in flower and in fruit. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

G. Nultalhi. A very handsome North American species for a sheltered position. 15-20 ft. Conspicuous creamy-white bracts 4-6 in. across. Brilliant autumn foliage. Deciduous.

Corokia Cotoneaster. Charming New Zealand evergreen shrub up to 8 ft. high, of greyish appearance and zig-zag branches. The yellow star-like fragrant flowers appear in May, and are followed by orange-red berries.

Correa speciosa (magnifica). A beautiful Australian shrub for south or west walls in mild districts. Flowers tubular, primrose with green reverse, produced from April to September.

Corylopsls. Deciduous shrubs and small trees, with flowers of a soft beauty of their own, produced in the early month of the year, before the leaves.

G. pauciflora. 4 ft. Very free-flowering Japanese species with spikes of primrose-yellow flowers, very sweetly scented, in March. Rather tender north of London. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

G. spicata. Japan, 4-6 ft. Drooping spikes of yellow flowers, cowslip-scented, during February and March. Foliage bright yellow in autumn.

Gotinus. See RHUS.

Cotoneaster. Valuable garden shrub, deciduous and evergreen, interesting throughout the season, but at their best in autumn, when studded with scarlet berries. Plant in ordinary garden soil in sun or shade. 0. adpressa. Dwarf (1 ft.) growing, deciduous shrub with round bright red berries in early autumn. A good rock garden shrub.

G. bullata, 10 ft. Dark glossy green leaves, flowers pinkish-white in June, followed by brilliant red berries in autumn.

G. congesta. Dwarf (1 ft.) evergreen Himalayan shrub with blush-white flowers in June, followed by large brilliant red berries. An excellent little shrub for creeping over a rock, or for covering a bank.

C. jrigida. A deciduous or semi-evergreen Himalayan species of tree-liko dimensions, 20-30 ft. When kept to a single stem, and loaded with its magnificent crops of brilliant red berries, may be regarded as the finest of the genus. The berries of this Cotoneastcr do not appeal to birds. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S. 0. horizontal-is. Dwarf, deciduous species 34 ft. high, but spreading over the ground. Leaves of a lustrous green, persisting until December. Small flowers very freely produced in May. Berries red, appearing among the brilliantty coloured foliage in autumn. Very effective grown as a standard. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

G. Lindleyi. A deciduous Himalayan species up to about 12 ft. high, suitable for the wild garden or rough woodland? And near water. Flowers white, berries black.

C. microphylla. Evergreen Himalayan species with very small leaves and extra large red berries, 3-4 ft. A good shrub for covering banks or the rougher parts of the rock garden, or it may be trained on a north wall.

G. rotundifolia. Sub-evergreen species from the Himalayas, of stiff habit, about 6 ft. high, with small glossy green leaves. The scarlet berries are the largest of the genus, and persist well into the New Year, together with a good proportion of its leaves. Will grow almost anywhere. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

G. Simonsii. Very attractive species with vermilion berries and brilliantly tinted leaves, during the autumn and early part of winter.

Crab. See PYRU3.


Crataegus. Thorns. Very ornamental deciduous small trees mostly from N. America, with attractive autumn foliage, and fruit of various colours. They make very effective lawn trees. Of easy cultivation in ordinary soil.

C. Carnerei. Hybrid. Beautiful species with glossy dark green laurel-like leaves, white flowers nearly 1 in. across in June, followed by orange-red fruit as large as cherries, persisting throughout the winter.

C. cordaia. 15-20 ft. Very beautiful in autumn with orange and scarlet tinted foliage, and large clusters of scarlet fruit. Flowers white, in clusters during July.

C. Crus-galli (Cockspur Thorn). Very distinct species up to about 15 ft. high, with white flowers and pink anthers during June. Thorns nearly 3 in. long. Foliage glossy green changing to brilliant scarlet in autumn. Fruit deep red.

G. macracantha. 15 ft. Remarkable in possessing the largest thorns (4-5 in. long) of the genus. Very hardy, a good grower and handsome with its bright crimson fruit. Flowers white, with yellow anthers.

C. mollis. 30 ft. One of the most beautiful, with white flowers 1 in. across, and red fruit.

C. orientalis. Native of the Orient. A charming species 15-20 ft. bearing in ear June many corymbs of twelve or more white flowers, followed by coral-red fruit.

C. Oxyacanlha. Hawthorn or May. A native tree too well known to need description.

C. 0. flore pleno coccineo. The best red thorn with double flowers.

G. 0. flore rosea. Single pink May.

C. 0. preecox. The famous Glastonbury Thorn.

C. pinnatifida major. Very handsome Chinese species with large leaves turning to glowing crimson in autumn. Flowers white, and large rich red fruits.

C. prunifolia. 15-20 ft. In the beauty of its blossom, profusion of rich red fruits, and glowing crimson foliage in autumn, this N. American thorn may be regarded as the most beautiful of the genus; although lacking the richness of the red-flowered May.

Crinodendron. See TETCUSPIDARIA.

Cryptomeria japonica. Japanese Cedar. Monotypic genus, consisting of several varieties; var. elegans being the most beautiful. Very distinct evergreen tree, up to 100 ft. or so. Bark reddish-brown, young leaves glaucous, changing to bronzy red in autumn. There is a dwarf form, O.j. e. campacta, and a pygmy form about 2 ft. high known as G. j. nana.

Cucumber Tree. See MAGNOLIA

Cunninghamia sinensis. Very beautiful Chinese evergreen tree of distinct and unique appearance, with glossy bluish-green leaves and round cones. Fairly hardy, but prospers best in mild districts. An extremely ancient type of vegetation, been found in a fossil state.

Cupressus. Genus of overgreen trees, belonging to the conifer family, of great beauty, and ease of cultivation.

G. arizonica. 30-70 ft. One of the hardiest. Handsome, glaucous-leaved species of pyramidal babit.

G. cashmcriana. The most beautiful. An elegant treo of pendulous habit, and glaucous foliage. Needs a mild climate.

G. Laicsonianum. One of the most useful and ornamental. Excellent for exposed positions, hedges or tall screens etc. The following are a few of the most distinct varieties.

C. L. Allumii. Of conical habit, very glaucous blue foliage.

G. L. Fletcheri. Very popular, dwarf, slow growing variety, up to about 4 ft. Forms a glaucous blue pyramid. Fine conifer for the rock garden.

G. L. lutea. Golden-yellow foliage.

G, L. nana. Very slow growing, dense globular form. ,

G. L. Poltenii. Forms a perfect, compact pyramid of soft silvery-green. Very beautiful.

G.L. Triomphe de Boskoop. Exceptionally glaucous. Fairly rapid growth.

G. macrocarpa. Very fast growing foliage bright green. Makes a beautiful hedge in maritime districts, and stands exposure well. Inland it suffers from wind, and needs a sheltered position.

C. dbtusa. A favourite Japanese conifer of variable forms.

G. o. Crippsii. Slow growing, golden foliage.

G. o. nana. Dwarf compact form, ideal for rock gardens. Foliage dark bright green.

O. o. n. aurea. Golden-leaf form.

O. pisifera. Japanese species of narrow pyramidal form. 0. semper vir ens. The Italian or Mediterranean Cypress, of narrow pyramidal habit and dark green foliage. Very valuable timber tree.

Currant, Flowering. See RIBES.

Cydonia japonica. Japanese Quince, often known as Pyrus japonica. One of the most cherished of early flowering shrubs. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S. The following varieties are recommended.

G. j. alropurpurea. Dark crimson.

G. j. nivalis. Best pure white.

C. Knap Hill Scarlet. The finest of all. Flowers orange-scarlet, 2 in. across, during April and May. 3 ft.

C. Simonii. Deep scarlet. Dwarf spreading habit. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Cytisus. Broom. Deciduous. Sun-loving shrubs, bearing a profusion of small pea-shaped flowers. Easily grown in ordinary garden soil. After flowering they should be cut back to prevent legginess.

C. albiis. 10 ft. One of the most beautiful of hardy flowering shrubs. Flowers white during May. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

C. Ardoinii. A decumbent species rarely exceeding 5 in. Flowers golden-yellow in April.

C. Beanii. A very pretty hybrid of semi-prostrate habit, and deep golden-yellow flowers in May. 0. Cornish Cream. 4-6 ft. Flowers cream.

C. Dallimorei. A Kew raised hybrid with deep rose flowers, flushed claret.

G. Dorothy Walpole. Flowers rich velvety crimson.

C. keicensis. A beautiful hybrid with large creamy-white flowers, and prostrate habit.

C. nigricans (Carlieri). 3 ft, yellow flowers from July to October. Very good on chalky soils.

C. pr&cox. A hybrid broom between C. dibits + C. purgans and one of the most beautiful of May-flowering shrubs. Flowers sulphur-yellow.

C. purpureas. 1-1 I ft. Flowers purple. The flowering shoots may be cut out when flowers have faded, leaving the young growths for the following years bloom.

C. scoparius. Common Yellow Broom. C. s. Andreanus. A parti-coloured yellow and crimson sport.

O.a. A. Firefly. Golden yellow ground flushed fiery red.

Dabcecia polifolia. St. Dabeocs Heath. Known as the Irish Heath, although not a true heath. Evergreen shrub 1-2 ft. high, bearing 3-5 in. long racemes of globular rosy-purple flowers, from June until autumn. One of the most beautiful and valuable dwarf shrubs. Very effective in large patches, and makes a good edging. Prune over in spring. Likes a peaty soil, or sandy loam and leaf-mould.

D. p. alba. Erect spikes of large snow white flowers, held well above the foliage. Very choice. Excellent for indoor decoration.

D. p. bicolor. Red, white and purple flowers on the same plant.

D. p. purpurea. A distinct form with dark green foliage and reddish crimson flowers.

Dansea Laurus. Alexandrian Laurel. Very elegant evergreen shrub, rather like a bamboo in habit, with bright green foliage, effective at all seasons. Thrives in shade. Cut sprays last well in water. Daphne. Evergreen, and deciduous shrubs with very sweetly scented flowers. They like a moist, well-drained, loamy soil with lime.

D. cneorum. Forms a spreading mass, less than 1 ft. high, with terminal clusters of rich rosy-pink flowers, exquisitely fragrant, during May and early June. Thrives in limy loam, also in sandy peat. D. hybrida (Dauphinii). 3-4 ft. Quite hardy, and easy to grow, and very fragrant reddish-purple flowers, scenting the air for some distance. Thrives in semi-shade.

D. Mezereum. A native shrub 2-4 ft. high with fragrant purplish flowers during February and March.

Daphniphyllum macropodum. A useful evergreen shrub, with rhododendron-like leaves, for growing in moist shady positions, and in chalky soils.

Davidia involucrata. A noble Chinese deciduous tree up to 30-50 ft, with mulberry-like leaves of vivid green.

The chief beauty of the tree is to be found in the enormous creamy – white bracts surrounding the flowers, which appear in May. Thrives in ordinary garden soil, and is excellent on chalk. Likes moisture.

Dendromecon rigidum. A beautiful Californium shrub for a sunny wall. Bears large, fragrant, bright golden-yellow, poppy-liko flowers over a very long period.

Deodar. See CEDBUS.

Desfontainea spinosa. A Chilean evergreen shrub of holly-like appearance, with striking red and orange tubular flowers from July to autumn. Likes a cool shady, sheltered, position. One of the most distinct and beautiful evergreen flowering shrubs.

Deutzia. Hardy, deciduous, easily grown flowering shrubs, bearing an abundance of white to pink flowers from May to August. Cut out some of the oldest growths from their baso in spring to encourago new shoots to flower the following year.

D. corymbosa. Charming Himalayan species, hawthorn-scented flowers, white with yellow anthers during July and August.

D. longifolia Veitchii (China). The finest pink-flowered Doutzia. Best in semi-shade. June flowering.

D. scrabia. Beautiful species from China and Japan. Perhaps the finest and most reliable species with white fiowers. These are borno in great profusion on erect p3ramidal panicles during June. Very beautiful.

Diervilla (Weigela). Very beautiful flowering shrubs, of easy cultivation in ordinary garden soil. Height about 6 ft. SPECIES AND HYBRIDS.

D. florida. Elegant Chinese species with bell-shaped deep rose flowers.

D. hybrida Abel Carricre. Rosy-carmine, yellow throat.

D. h. Eva Bathke. Lato flowering with deep crimson flowers.

D. h. Mont Blanc. Large white flowers.

Diospyros Kaki. Chinese Persimmon.

A deciduous tree, hardy in mild districts. Will ripen its fruit on a south wall.

Dipelta floribuncla. A very beautiful Chinese flowering shrub with fragrant pink tubular flowers during May and June. It likea semi-shade, and moist loamy soil.

Dogwood. See COBNUS.

Douglas Fir. See PSEUDOTSUGA.

Dracaena. See COBDYLINE.

Drimys Winter!. Winters Bark. Attractive evergreen flowering shrub, with rhododendron – like leaves up to 10 in. long, aromatic when crushed. Flowers ivory white, very fragrant. Does woll on calcareous soils.

Dutchmans Pipe. See ABISTOLOCHIA.

Eccremocarpus scaber. Handsome, semi-woody climber with the habit of a Clematis, suitable for warm walls. Flowers nodding, orange-red, about 1 in. long, freely produced in racemes 4-6 in. long, from June onwards.

Edgeworthia papyrifera (Daphne chrysantha). A deciduous, fragrant, yellow-flowered, Daphne-liko shrub from the Far East. 3-4 ft. Blooms in February. The branches are so flexible that they can be tied into a knot, as though they were a piece of string.

Edwardsia. See SornoRA.

Elaeagnus. Oleaster. Deciduous and evergreen shrub with very attractive foliago and berries. The silvery-leaved ones are best on a sandy or poor soil, and in full sun as a rule. The leaves should be examined under a lens.

E. anguslifolia. Jerusalem Willow, or Wild Olive of the Greeks. Deciduous.

Long, narrow, silvery leaves, and amber fruits.

E.argentea. Deciduous. Striking silvery foliage, and yellow fragrant flowers in May, followed by egg-shaped fruits. Best in semi-shade.

E. macrophylla. The handsomest ever-green species with leaves of a dark lustrous green above, silvery beneath. The fuchsia-like, very fragrant flowers are produced during October and November. Fruit red.

Elder. See SAMBUCUS.

Elm. See ULMUS.

Elsholtzia Staunton I. A useful autumnal flowering shrub with panicles of purplish-pink flowers from August to November.

Embothrium coccineum. The Chilean Fire Bush. One of the most remarkable and magnificent evergreen flowering trees. It is seen at its best in the west country, but is hardier than is generally supposed, and prospers as far inland as Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, with shelter provided by other evergreens, such as a hedge or Rhododendrons. During May the whole tree is a mass of very brilliant crimson honeysuckle-like flowers. Needs a lime-free soil.

Enkianthus. Very beautiful, deciduous, flowering shrub, with bell-shaped, or Lily-of-the-valley-like flowers during May. Their greatest charm is in the autumn when the leaves turn to brilliant shades of yellow and red. They need a moist, lime-free soil, with peat or leaf-mould. Best in half shade.

E. campanulatus. 5-8 ft. A Japanese species with creamy-white flowers, and superb foliage in autumn.

E. japonicus (perulatus). Flowers white, foliage turns to a beautiful golden yellow.

Erica. Heath. The hardy heaths are an invaluable family of dwarf flowering shrub, and where a collection is grown, flowers can be obtained throughout the year. They need a lime-free soil, except the species referred to as thriving on chalk. The plants should be pruned over after flowering.

E. arborea. A beautiful tree heath 6-15 ft. high. The fragrant white flowers scent the air during March and April. Briar pipes are made from its roots and not from those of the Rose as is supposed.

E. australis. Bright rose-coloured flowers during April and May. Rather tender.

E. camea. Dwarf species with rosy-pink flowers from February to May. Award of Merit, R.H.S.

E. c. King George. Deep pink. Award of Merit, R.H.S.

E. c. Vivelli. A beautiful variety with deep green foliage, turning to bronzy-red in winter. From autumn to the New Year the corolla of the flower is creamy-white, and the calyx carmine. About March the whole flower becomes suffused with brilliant carmine. Very choice.

E. ciliaris Marveana. A Portuguese form of the Dorset Heath (E. ciliaris), bearing large, globular, rosy-carmine flowers from July to November.

E. cinera atrorubens. One of the finest summer and autumn heaths. Flowers ruby-red.

E. c. carnea. A very choice form with pale-pink flowers from July till autumn.

E. c. coccinea. A very striking heather with dark foliage and scarlet-red flowers.

E. darleijensis. Hybrid E. carnea + E. mediterranea) of great garden value. Flowers rose, very freely produced from November to April. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

E. lusitanica (codonodes). Pink buds and white flowers from December to June, in the utmost profusion, on branches 1-2 ft. long.

E. Mackayi. Bright pink flowers during July and August.

E. mediterranea. Erect-growing species (5-10 ft.) covered with honey-scented, rosy-red bells from March to May.

E. slricta. A very desirable species with bright rosy flowers from July to October.

E. Teiralix. A native species, G-18 in. high, with rose-coloured flowers from June to October. Will thrive in very moist ground.

E. vagans. Cornish Heath. Of spreading habit, up to 18 in. high, with pinkish, rose-coloured flowers from July to October.

E. v. Lyonesse. The finest white variety.

E. v. Mrs. Maxwell. A new variety found wild in Cornwall a few years ago. The most beautiful of all hardy heathers. The branches are smothered with masses of deep cerise flowers from July to October. 6-12 in.

E. v. St. Ktverne. Also a new variety with bright rose-pink flowers, without any suggestion of blue. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

E. Veitchii. Natural hybrid between E. arborea and E. lusitanica. Quite as beautiful as its parents, and more vigorous.

E. vulgaris (Calluna vulgaris, or Ling). The well-known Heather of Scotland, and the Ling of England. It is generally supposed to dislike hine, yet it thrives on the chalk downs in Wiltshire.

E. v. alba. White Heather of Scotland. There are a number of varieties of this, all with white flowers and of different habit, such as erecta, minor, pumila, pyramidalis, spicata, Hammondii – one of the best – and a new introduction, E. v. Hairs Variety, which is probably the finest, with flower spikes up to 1-ft long.

The following heaths may be grown in calcareous districts especially if there is a fair amount of soil over the chalk:

E. arborea, E. carnea, E. darhyensis, E. mediterranea, E. stricta, E. vulgaris.

Eriobotrya japonica. Loquat or Japanese Medlar. A noble evergreen tree or large shrub, according to locality, with striking dark green corrugated leaves up to 1-ft. Long, downy beneath. Flowers white, nearly an inch across, fragrant of hawthorn. Really a magnificent shrub, especially in the south-west, where there are trees about 20-ft. High in the open, and much more against walls. In the home counties it needs wall pro-tection and only reaches to about 6-ft. It likes a chalky soil although not necessary.

Escallonia. Very ornamental and floriferous shrubs from South America, thriving amazingly in maritime districts. The majority are only half-hardy inland, but make fine wall shrubs. All are evergreen except E. Philippiana.

E. edinensis. Hybrid with bright rosy-pink flowers during the summer. Perfectly hardy.

E. fioribunda. Fragrant white flowers during July and August. Needs wall protection.

E. langleyensis. Hybrid with crimson flowers. A good companion to E. edinensis.

E. macrantha. Strong-growing species with beautiful glossy leaves and rosy-crimson flowers. A fine hedge plant in seaside districts, and stands gales well.

E. Philippiana. The hardiest of all. Flowers pure white. Not a success on chalky soils.

Eucalyptus. Evergreen trees of rapid growth, from Australia and Tasmania. Only a few are hardy in this country. Where they can be grown they impart an air of distinction to the garden. Plant in ordinary loamy soil, in full sun. Protect from strong winds while young.

E. cilriodora. A very tender species with foliage deliciously scented like the lemon-scented verbena.

E. coccifcra. Hardy in all but very severe winters. Foliage a beautiful blue-green, purple flowers.

E. ficifolia. Very tender, but one ot the most magnificent flowering trees it is possible to giow in this country, or in any other country. Flowers scarlet, young growths tinted crimson.

E. globulus. The Blue Gum. Hardy in the south. Flowers white.

E. Ounnii. A noble species growing up to 80 ft. Foliage round and silvery on young trees. As the trees age the leaves become narrow, pointed, and grey-green in colour. Flowers white.

E. pauciflora. One of the hardiest species, with a white trunk and long, sickle-shaped leaves.

Eucryphia. Beautiful shrubs or trees flowering during July and August. They need a peaty soil, or well-drained loam. If they can be placed where they are shaded from the midday sun the flowers last longer.

E. cordifolia. Evergreen. Flowers 2 in. wide, pure white, fragrant, during September and October. Tender.

E. pinnatifolia. Deciduous. A glorious Chilian shrub or small tree, bearing large white flowers with golden anthers, like those of the Rose of Sharon. August flowering.

Eugenia. See MYETUS.

Euonymus. Deciduous and evergreen shrubs of no floral interest, but valuable on account of the beauty of their fruit, and in some species rich autumnal foliage. Easily grown in ordinary soil.

E. alaius. Deciduous. One of the finest shrubs for autumn colour. Leaves turn to rich rosy-red and crimson.

E.aponicus. Evergreen. A bright-foliaged shrub, thriving in sun or shade. Hake a good hedge in seaside gardens.

E. lalifolius. Deciduous. Very beautiful in autumn with large rosy-red fruits and dark red leaves.

E. radicans. Evergreen. Form a thick mat of dark green foliage. Useful for covering bare places in sun or shade, or north walls.

Eupatorium. Weinmannianum. An attractive and quick-growing, flowering shrub for mild seaside districts. Flowers white in large flat heads, from August tti October.

Exochorda. Beautiful, white-fowered deciduous shrubs of easy cultivation in sunny positions.

E. Qiraldii. Flowers 2 in. across on long arching branches in May.

E. grandiflora. The Pearl Bush. A strikingly beautiful shrub, with each branch a huge inflorescence of snow- white flowers in May.

Fabiana imbricata. Charming Chilian evergreen shrub with heath-like foliage and large plumes of narrow tubular flowers from May onwards. Needs a wall except in mild districts. Thrives in fight sandy soil and also on chalk. A very attractive and beautiful shrub.

Fagus sylvatica. The Common Beech. Noble trees, luxuriating in calcareous soils. Excellent for hedge making.

F. s. pendula. The Weeping Beech.

F. 8. purpurea. The Purple-leaved Beech.

F. s. p. pendvla. A beautiful weeping form of the preceding.

Fatsia japonica (Aralia Siebdldii). A striking Japanese evergreen with very large leaves, and white flowers, followed by black, pea-like fruits. Best in semi-shade. Perfectly hardy.

Feijoa Sellowiana. Rare and beautiful evergreen shrub from Brazil. Foliage deep green, silvery beneath. It bears attractive flowers about 2 in. across, like a large crimson and white fuchsia. Likes a chalky soil. A good wall shrub.

Fendlera rupicola. A deciduous shrub bearing a profusion of rosy-white flowers during May and June. Needs the sunniest position possible against a wall.

Fir. See ABIES.

Forsy thia. Beautiful flowering shrubs of easy culture in ordinary garden soil. Flowers yellow, on leafless branches in early spring.

F. intermedia spcctabilis. Hybrid 6-9 ft. Golden-yellow flowers in early April. Wonderfully floriferous. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

F. suspensa. An old favourite in gardens. During March the long gracefully trailing branches are covered with golden-yellow flowers.

Fraxinus. Ash. Hardy and fast-growing deciduous trees, thriving in almost any kind of soil, including calcareous. They all thrive in or near large towns and windswept maritime districts.

F. angustifolia hntiscifolia. A very ornamental Ash with pendulous branches bearing small narrow graceful leaves.

F. excelsior. The Common Ash. A valuable timber tree, but needs good soil if grown for that purpose.

F. e. pendula. The Weeping Ash. Excellent for a garden arbour.

F. lanceolata. Foliage vivid apple-green.

F. Mariesii. A beautiful Chinese Ash with creamy-white flowers and purple fruit. This is the most ornamental of the flowering Ashes and is the best one for small gardens. 15-20 ft.

Fremontia calif ornica. A very handsome semi-evergreen Californian shrub for sunny sheltered position, and poor soil. In rich soil it does not flower freely.

Excellent against a wall. Flowers bright golden, cup-shaped, very waxy, borne from May to September. 8-12 ft.

Fuchsia. The following species and varieties of this well-known flower are much neglected in gardens. Their brilliant colours are most useful from July onwards. In seaside gardens they make huge bushes, and are sometimes used for hedges. In inland gardens they may set out to the ground level in severe winters, but they break out again freely in the spring.

F. Madame Cornellison. Hybrid with white corolla, and crimson-scarlet sepals.

F. Drame. Hybrid with large purple corolla.

F. macrostemma. A South American species with long scarlet calyx and purple corolla.

F. m. corallina exoniensis). Showy form with bright red sepals and purple petals. Exceptionally fine against a wall.

F. m. gracilis. Red and purple flowers of elegant and graceful form.

F. procumbens. A very dainty creeping species from New Zealand, with violet, brown, and yellow flowers, and large black fruits. Very suitable for small rock gardens.

F. Riccartonii. A hardy hybrid Fuchsia, bearing a profusion of scarlet and purple flowers throughout the late summer and autumn. Much used as a hedge in the south west.

Furze. See ULEX.

Gale. See MYBICA.

Garry a elliptica. A dense bushy ever green with foliage resembling that of the evergreen oak, conspicuous in winter with long, gracefully drooping, silvery-green catkins. Useful for north or east walls.

N.B. The male form produces the finest and longest catkins.

Gaultheria. A genus of evergreen shrubs thriving in peat, moisture, and shade or semi-shade. They do not succeed in ordinary soil, except G. Shallon. 0. procumbens. Creeping Winter-Green or Partridge Berry of Canada. A splendid carpeting shrub about 6 in. high. Its dark, lustrous green leaves turn crimson in winter. The pinkish-white flowers, produced during July and August, are followed by scarlet berries.

G. shallon. A North American shrub 2-4 ft. high, bearing a profusion of pinkish egg-shaped flowers in May, fol lowed by edible purple fruits. One of the few shrubs which prosper under the drip and shade of trees.

Genista. Broom. Dwarf flowering shrub, mostly deciduous, valuable for poor dry soils and sunny places, or the rock garden.

G. cclnensis. The Mount Etna Broom, yellow flowers in late summer and autumn. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

G. hispanica. The Spanish Goree. Bright green cushions covered in yellow flower from May to July. Fine for rock gardens.

G. pilosa. Dense little bush li ft. high with yellow flowers throughout the summer. Useful for covering dry sunny banks.

G. tincloria Jlore . Semi-prostrate shrub, forming a mound of orange-yellow flowers in July and August.

G. virgata. A slender growing species from Madeira, with long racemes of bright yellow flowers from June to August. Will thrive in semi-shaded positions Award of Merit, R.H.S.

Ginkgo biloba (Salisburya adiantifolia). Maidenhair Tree. The only species of its genus, and the only deciduous conifer known. It is a relic of prehistoric times and exists in a fossil state. One of the most distinct and beautiful of deciduous trees, with foliage like that of the Maidenhair fern. Likes a good loamy soil. Perfectly hardy.

Gorse. See ULEX.

Grevillea rosmarinifolia. A beautiful Australian evergreen flowering shrub for warm seaside gardens, in a lime-free soil. Flowers deep rosy-red, laid shaped. Foliago very like that of Rosemary.



Halesia Carolina (tetraptora). The Snowdrop Tree. An exquisite flowering shrub or small tree, bearing clusters of silvery-white flowers resembling snowdrops, before the foliage. Likes a well-drained loamy soil in sunny position.

Hamamelis. Witch Hazel. Remarkable genus of deciduous small trees or large shrubs, with very distinctive flowers consisting of narrow yellow petals.

H. japonica Zuccariniana. Flowera lemon-yellow in March. Foliage attractively coloured in autumn. 77. mollis. The handsomest of the genus, and a magnificent plant. Flowera fragrant, rich golden-yellow on the bare twigs from December to February. Leaves 4-6 in. long, turning yellow in autumn. Excellent for indoor decoration. Perhaps best grown in the form of a standard. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Hazel. See CORYLUS.

Heath. See ERICA, Dabozcia.

Heather. See ERICA vulgaris.

Hedera. Ivy. Self-clinging evergreen.

H. colchica. A Persian species quite distinct from all other Ivies, with loaves 10 in. long and 3-7 in. across.

H. hibernica. Irish Ivy. Leaves black-green, 3-6 in. across. There are yellow and white variegated forms.

H. Helix. The Common Native Ivy.

When cuttings of the bushy state of Ivy are taken, the resultant plants retain that habit, and become handsome, rounded bushes. They are then known as tree ivies.

Helianthemum. Sun Roses. Dwarf shrubby evergreens producing their flowers in extraordinary profusion from May onwards. They succeed in light open soil, and need the sunniest positions in the garden.

H. formosum. A low spreading bush about 2 ft. high, and much more in width, with greyish foliage. The bright rich yellow flowers, each petal with a conspicuous maroon eye spot or blotch, are the most beautiful ia the genus. Although a native of Portugal it is perfectly hardy. Excellent for covering a dry sunny bank.

H. . concolor. A form with unblotched flowers.

H. vvlgare. The common Sun or Tree Hollyhock. Beautiful late Rock Rose, consisting of many varieties flowering deciduous shrub, blooming from varing in colour from cream to red. August to November. Ordinary garden Hibiscus syriacus Althcca frutex). soil in sunny position. It is found in India and China as a cultivated plant, but the type is unknown. The following are the most distinct varieties. Admiral Deway, double white; cceleste, single blue; cceruleus plenus, double blue; elegantissima, double white; Jeanne dArc, double rose, and white; rubis, single red; tolus albus, large single pure white.

Hickory. See CARYA.

Hippophae rhamnoides. A deciduous shrub with silvery-grey leaves, and orange-coloured berries. Thore are few more beautiful shrubs where winter effects are valued. The berries remain effective from autumn until February, and are never touched by birds. Valuable seasido shrub as well as inland. Both sexes are needed to ensure a crop of berries. See also BUCKTHORN.

Hoheia populnea. Very handsome, free-flowering New Zealand evergreen, for mild districts. Fragrant white flowers in clusters, produced during August and September.

Hornbeam. See CARPINUS.

Horse Chestnut. See AESCOXUS HIP- Hydrangea. Very beautiful and useful late summer and autumn flowering shrubs, lasting in bloom for many weeks. The infloresence is made up of large showy sterile flowers, and numerous small fertile ones. Some of the popular garden Hydrangeas bear no fertile flowers. Excellent as tub plants. They thrive in good garden soil. For blue hydrangeas see H. Jiortensis.

H. arborescena grandijlora. A splendid, hardy, vigorous species from the mountains of Pennsylvania, bearing large heads of pure white flowers in July and August. 4 feet. A good substitute for II. Hortensis in cold districts.

H. aspera macrophylla. A superb Chinese species, with large leaves and pale porcelain-blue flowers.

H. hortensis. The Common Hydran- gea, with its varieties, is one of the most popular of garden plants. Native of China and Japan. Flowers pink or blue, according to the soil. If blue flowers are desired, and the soil lacks iron, iron filings may be incorporated with the soil, or a weak solution of alum may be used. A blueing powder may be procured from nurserymen.

H. h. Blue Prince. Dull red, becoming cornflower blue when treated.

H. h. Elmar. Deep carmine.

H. h. General Vic. De Vibraye. Vivid rose, retains its colour well.

H. h. Madame E. Moulliere. Pure white, carmine eye.

H. h. Mariesii. Delicate mauve pink, 3 in. across.

H. h. Niedersachsen. Vivid pink, a good variety for blueing.

II. h. Veitchii. May be described as a white Mariesii.

H. paniculata. Hardy and ornamental Japanese species, bearing large pyramidal panicles of white flowers, which change to pink, and finally become brown. If extra large panicles of bloom are desired, reduce the shoots to 6 or 10, according to the size of the plant; and a mulch of manure is helpful. This is one of the most beautiful hardy species and unequalled for growing in large pots or tubs. Grows well in shade.

H. petiolaris. A beautiful self-clinging climbing Japanese species, bearing flat heads of whito flowers during July and August. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

H. Sargentiana. A grand Chinese species with enormous leaves, and bluish or rosy lilac flowers. A splendid woodland plant.

H. villosa. A charming Chinese species with handsome lanceolate leaves, and porcelain-blue flowers.

Hypericum. St. Johns Wort. Prolific blooming yellow-flowered shrubs, thriving in sun or shade, and in any soil. Autumn and summer flowering.

H. calycinum. The Rose of Sharon, Aarons Beard An evergreen oriental species, 12-15 in. high. Useful for carpeting under trees, or on shady banks. Large yellow flowers from June to September.

H. patulum Forreshi. A very fine variety with bright red foliage during spring and summer, ageing to green, finally becoming dark green in autumn. Flowers large, yellow from June onwards. Award of Merit, R.H.S., and Garden Award of Merit, R.H.S.

H. Moserianum. Hybrid (H. calycinum H. patulum) with large waxy butter-yellow cup-shaped flowers, and crimson-tipped stamens. Fine for massing and for covering rough ground. Continuous blooming from July until frost.

Ilex. Holly. Large genus of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs, with very decorative foliage and attractive berries.

I. Aquifolium. Common Holly. Native of Europe and Britain. One of the most useful of evergreen trees and shrubs. Unexcelled for shelter, and evergreen hedges. Best planted in May or end of September. There are many varieties, the following being some of the most distinct.

J. A. camdliaifolia. One of the finest. Leaves dark glossy green up to 5 in. long, and very large berries. . A. Handsioorth. New Silver. Leaves margined silver. . A. Ilendersonii. A free-bearing variety, with smooth leaves. . A. pendula. The Weeping Holly. . A. pyramidalis. A free-bearing variety, of pyramidal form.

I. latifolia. A magnificent Japanese Holly with dark, lustrous leaves up to 8 in. long, and large red berries freely borne. . Pernyi. A beautiful Chinese species of slender, pyramidal habit, with small, almost rectangular leaves of dark glossy green.

Indigofera Gerardiana. An attractive, hardy, deciduous shrub with rosy-purple, pea-shaped flowers from June to September. 3-4 ft. in the open, 10 ft. or so against a wall. Likes full sun

Ivy. See HEDERA.

Jasminum. (Jasmine). A genus of evergreen and deciduous shrubs and climbers, with white or yellow fragrant flowers.

J. nudiflorum. Yellow flowers from midwinter to April. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S. China and Japan.

J. officinale. White flowers from June to frost.

J. primulinum. The most beautiful, but rather tender. Flowers soft yellow, nearly 2 in. across from May to autumn.

Judas Tree. See CERCIS.

Juglans. Walnut. Well-known deciduous trees, valuable for their nuts, and as fast-growing shade trees for large gardens. There are about twelve species in cultivation, but the Common Walnut. (J. regia) and the Black Walnut (J. nigra) are the two most generally grown. Not particular as to soil.

J. nigra. N. America. Moi e ornamental than the next species, with leaves from 1-2 ft. long. The nuts are of no account. A valuable timber tree.

J. regia. The Common Walnut. There is a variety named regia maxima, producing very large nuts, and a weeping form, regia laciniata.

Juniperus (Juniper)

An interesting genus of conifers varying from erect-growing trees to low, creeping alpine forms. They like chalky soils, although lime is not essential.

J. chinensis. China. Pyramidal habit, grey-green foliage.

J. c. aurea. Golden-yellow foliage.

J. c. Pfitzeriana. Spreading habit, glaucous foliage.

J. communis. Common Juniper. Very hardy and accommodating.

J. c. compressa. A dainty, exquisite, cone-shaped variety. Perhaps the slowest growing of all conifers. Takes about twenty years to grow 1 ft. A perfect genus for the rock garden.

J. c. nana. Another slow-growing dwarf gem, rarely exceeding 1 ft. Concave glaucous foliage.

J. horizontalis. A trailing N. America species with bluish-green leaves.

J. pachyphlcea. Vivid silver-blue foliage when young.

J.procumbens. The Creeping Juniper of Japan. Glaucous leaves.

J. Sabina. A very handsome dwarf evergreen about 5-6 ft. high.

J. S. variegata. Leaves tipped with creamy-white.

J. virginiana. Cedar Pencil Juniper of N. America. Very hardy and accom-modating. Forms a handsome pyramid. There are a number of varieties varying in habit and foliage.

Kalmia. Mountain Laurel. North America, evergreen, peat-loving shrubs thriving under the same conditions as Rhododendrons, Heaths, etc. K. latifolia thrives in any light lime-free soil.

E. angustifolia. Narrow leaves and rosy-red, saucer-shaped flowers during June.

K. latifolia. The largest and showiest species, and one of the most beautiful of all flowering shrubs. Deep rose saucer-shaped flowers in large clusters, and glossy green foliage. June flowering.

Kerria japonica (Jews Mallow). A Chinese deciduous shrub with arching branches of yellow buttercup-like flowers. There is a form with double flowers. Excellent on a north wall.

Koelwitzia amabilis. Hardy Chinese shrub, 3-5 ft, high, bearing beautiful Weigela-like flowers, pink with yellow throat, during May and June.

Laburnum. One of the most popular of flowering trees, of unique beauty. Ordinary garden soil. The seed pods should be removed immediately the flowers have faded.

L. alpinum. The Scotch Laburnum. Native of Europe. Long drooping racemes of yellow flowers in June.

L. vossii. The finest Laburnum. Deep yellow flowers in racemes 18-20 in. long. Hybrid between the two species mentioned. May and June. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

L. vulgare. The well-known Common Laburnum. Flowers about two weeks after L. alpinum.

Larix (Larch). The larches are among the most beautiful of all conifers, with their tender green foliage, and interesting flowers in spring. The foliage assumes russet tints in autumn. They like a well-drained moist loamy soil. All are deciduous.

L. europazi. Common Larch. Perhaps no trees excel this in the beauty and soft tenderness of the young green foliage in spring. The trunk is attractively coloured. Valuable timber tree.

L. leptolepis (Kannpferi). Japanese Larch. Leaves broader, and of a paler green than the preceding.

L. Potaninii. Chinese Larch. A beautiful tree.


Laurel, Portugal. See PRUNUS

Laurus nobilis. The well-known Bay Tree Sweet Bay or Poets Laurel from the Mediterranean region. Foliage evergreen and aromatic. Thrives particularly well in maritime and chalky districts. Excellent for tub culture. The leaves (not those of the laurel) are used for flavouring custards, puddings, etc. in classical times the leaves were made into crowns for heroes, while the fruiting sprays were used to make wreaths for eminent poets (hence poets laureate). The variety angustifolia has very elegant, distinct, narrow willow-like leaves.

Laurustinus. See VIBURNUM TINUS.

Lavandula (Lavender). One of the most valuable and highly prized of fragrant slirubs. It thrives in sunny positions and well-drained soils. Excellent for dwarf hedges. Native of Mediterranean regions.

L. spica. Common, or Old English Lavender.

L. 8. gigantea. Grappenhall Variety. Very strong and vigorous. 3 ft.

L. 8. nana. Dwarf (9 inches). French variety.

L. s. nana. Munstead Dwarf. An early variety with darker flowers. 1 ft.

L. vera. Dutch Lavender. This makes the best lavender water.

Lavatera. Tree Mallows. Up to 6 ft. or so. Ordinary soil in full sun. Flowers very freely borne in late summer and autumn.

L. caeliemiriana. Large pink flowers.

L. olbia rosea. Flowers of a clear rose-pink.

Lavender. See LAVANDULA.

Ledum latifolium (Wild Rosemary). Attractive dwarf semi-shade and moisture-loving evergreen shrubs with clusters of small rhododendron-like flowers. Peaty or light non-limy soil 2-3 ft. Native of Greenland. Flowers white from April to June.

Leiophyllum buxifolium (Sand Myrtle). A charming little evergreen shrub with glossy, box-like leaves. Flowers, very freely borne during May and June, of a rosy-pink colour ageing to white. It likes semi-shade and a non-calcareous soil. An excellent shrub for the rock garden.

Lemon-scented Verbena. . Useful ever-greens for hedges, etc., almost too well known to need describing. A few of the more uncommon and distinct species are enumerated hereunder.


L. Ilenryi. Handsome Chinese species, of neat compact habit and small glossy blackish-green leaves.

L. japonicum. Large-leaved Chinese and Japanese species of elegant habit, White flowers in panicles 4-8 in. long, from July to September. Foliage blackish-green, and very glossy.

L. lucidum. A very handsome Chinese Privet with large, glossy, dark green leaves, and 8-in. Plumes of creamy-white flowers, during August and September.

L. ovalifolium. Japan. This is the popular privet so much employed in the making of hedges.

L. o. variegatum. Rich golden variegated leaves.

Ling. See ERICA.

Lippia citriodora Aloysia citriodora). The well – known and old – fushioned lemon-scented Verbena. It is only hardy in favoured districts, such as the Isle of Wight, where it grows into large bushes. Native of Chile.

Liquidambar styraciflua. The Sweet Gum of N. America. A tall, stately tree with beautiful maple-like leaves which assume most gorgeous shades of orange and crimson in autumn. Flowers inconspicuous. Likes a moist loamy soil.

Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip Tree). A handsome and noble tree of the largest size, up to 190 feet or so in nature. Leaves variable, 3-7 inches long. The large greenish-white flowers, in shape like a tulip, are produced in June and July. The foliage turns a rich yellow in autumn.

Lithospermum prostratum. An evergreen shrub of prostrate habit, growing about 1 ft. high, bearing beautiful gentian-blue flowers from early spring to June. Likes a light, woll-drained soil, not too rich, and full sun. The form called Heavenly Blue bears sky-blue flowers, and is very lovely.

Lonicera (Honeysuckle). Deciduous and evergreen shrubs and climbers, many with fragrant flowers and attractive berries.


L. fragrantissima. Deciduous semi-evergreen Chinese shrub, producing small, very fragrant creamy flowers during the winter and early spring. Perfectly hardy, but is most satisfactory on a south or west wall.

L. nitida. A graceful Chinese evergreen species, bocoming increasingly popular for hedge making. It has small, dainty, glossy foliago, quite unique among Honeysuckles. Of dense, bushy habit, perfectly hardy, and quick growing. Lb possesses all the good points of the common privet, and none of its bad ones. Bears clipping well, and forms one of the most attractive, hardy hedges it is possible to imagine. 6-8 ft. Practically every cutting, or clippings from the hedge, will root readily in the open ground.

L. Standishii. Semi-evergreen 4-6 ft. high. Flowers creamy-white, very fragrant, borne from November to March.

L. syringantha. Deciduous. An elegant Chinese honejsuckle 2-5 ft. high, bearing pale lilac flowers with the sweet fragrance of hyacinths, during May and June. CLIMBING SPECIES:

L. Brownii. The Scarlet Trumpet Honeysuckle. Prospers in semi-shada, and bears many orange-scarlet flowers from June to autumn.

L. Periclymenum. Woodbine. Common Honeysuckle.

L. P. belgica (Early Dutch Honeysuckle). An old favourite, bearing clusters of fragrant reddish flowers turning to yellow.

L. P. serotina. Late Dutch Honeysuckle. Flowers longer, and of a deeper red than the preceding, blooming from May to autumn.

L. tragophylla. Clunese Woodbine. Flowers bright yellow, very large and showy, produced from June to September. Likes semi-shade.

Lupinus arborens (Tree Lupin). Very quick-growing evergreen shrub, bearing flowers of white, yellow, purplish, and pale blue. Succeeds on dry banks and in rather poor soil. In rich soil it is short lived.

Magnolia. One of the most important axl magnificent genera of flowering shrubs and trees capable of being grown out of doors in this country. Of rather slow growth. Plant in well-drained, fairly heavy, loamy soil, and shelter from the early morning sun if possible. They should not be moved in a dormant state. May is the best month to plant, when active growth has commenced, but before the leaves have unfolded. SPECIES:

M. conspicua. The Chinese Yulan Lily Tree. Flowers large, cup-shaped, pure white, from March to May.

M. glauca. The Sweet, or Swamp Bay of North America, 10-15 ft. high. Leaves lustrous green above, glaucous beneath. The flowers, 2-3 in. across, creamy-white and wonderfully fragrant, are produced from June to September.

M. grandiflora. Perhaps the finest evergreen flowering tree. Leaves up to 10 in. long, glossy dark green. Flowers 8-10 in. across, creamy-white and spicily fragrant, produced during late summer and autumn.

M. Lennei. A very beautiful hybrid magnolia, bearing flowers of a rosy-purple outside, white inside. They commence to open about April and last through May. In some seasons it flowers again in the autumn.

M. parviflora. A native of Japan and Korea. Leaves dark green above, glaucous beneath. Flowers pure white, fragrant, cup-shaped on opening, encircling a rosy-crimson disk of stamens. A great favourite. It is perfectly hardy, but not so vigorous as some of the other species, and appreciates a proportion of peat or leaf-mould in the soil. Very suitable for small gardens.

M. Soulangiana. A valuable and popular hybrid Magnolia (M. conspicua -f-M. Obovata) with beautiful flowers, white within, and shaded purple without, freely borne from April to June.

M. stellala. A Japanese species, bearing a profusion of snow-white flowers during March and April, before the leaves. A first-rate Magnolia for small gardens, flowering in quite a young state. It likes peat in the soil. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

M. s. nigra. A Japanese variety with deep, vinous purple flowers.

M. s. rustica (rustica fl. Rubra). A very beautiful form with white and rosy-purple flowers.

Mahonia. See BERBERIS.

Maidenhair Tree. See GINKGO.

Maple. See ACER.


Medlar. See MESFILUS.

Mespilus Germanica (The Medlar ). A small, deciduous tree with white flowers in May and June, followed by brown, apple-shaped fruits, much esteemed for making into jelly. Although growing wild in the woods of our southern counties, it is not a native of this country, but is indigenous to Europe and Asia

Mock Orange. See PHILADELPHIA.

Monkey Puzzle. See ARAUCARIA.

Moras (Mulberries). Mulberry trees aru very old inhabitants of English gardens, having been grown in this country for the last 400 years. It likes a warm, well-drained loamy soil. Flowers of no floral beauty.


M. alba. The White Mulberry of China. The silk worms are fed on the leaves of this species.

They like a sandy loam with peat or leaf-mould added. Frequent syringing during the summer is much appreciated.

M. bullata. A remarkable and very beautiful New Zealand species with corru-gated leaves in shades of bronzy-red and brown. A very choice Myrtle for mild, seaside gardens.

M. communis. Common Myrtle. Native of Mediterranean regions. Well known for its pleasing glossy green foliage and

M. nigra. The Black Mulberry or Common Mulberry. This Mulberry is the one most generally grown in this country for the production of fruit. It is a very ancient fruit-bearing tree, having been cultivated and naturalized in several Oriental countries for thousands of years and without producing any known variations.

Mountain Ash. See PYRTA AUCUPARIA.

Myrobalan Plum. See PRUNUS CERA-SIFERA.

Myrtle. See MYRTUS.

Myrtus (Myrtle). Very ornamental and beautiful shrubs, highly prized for their attractive, glossy foliage; sweetly-scented flowers. Only hardy in mild districts, and even then generally need wall protection.

Fragrant creamy flowers during July, and on to September.

M. c. microphylla. An uncommon form with small leaves.

M. c. variegata. Foliage attractively variegated.


M. lusitanxca tarentina. A small-leaved form commonly known under the name of Jennj Reitenbach. Hardier than M. communis.

M. nummularia. A prostrate shrub from the Falkland Islands, never exceeding 1 in. in height. Flowers white, succeeded by attractive pink fruits. It has withstood 20 degrees of frost in Hampshire.


Nandina domestica. A Chinese evergreen shrub of elegant bamboo-like appearance, known as the Chinese Bamboo. Leaves from 12-18 in. long, very much divided, tinged with red, and becoming purple in autumn. Flowers white, followed by bright red berries. Fairly hardy, but thrives best in the warm south-west counties. It likes a moist soil, and shelter from wind.

Nothofagus. Southern Beeches. Deciduous and evergreen trees of great beauty. They like a lime-free soil. SPECIES:

N. Cunninghamii. Evergreen. A graceful Australian Beech with glossy leaves, copper-coloured when young, ageing to green. Likes semi-shade. Only suitable for mild districts. 8-20 ft.

M. procera. Deciduous. A handsome Chilian species of rapid growth. The corrugated foliage turns yellow in autumn. Much hardier than the foregoing; has with-stood nearly 30 degrees of frost.

Notospartium Carmichajliae. A beautiful New Zealand shrub of elegant habit. The almost leafless branches bea short racemes of pink pea-like floweifl during June and July. Likes a well-drained sandy loam and a sunny position. In the warm south-west it seems to prosper best in half-shade.

Nyssa sylvatica. A beautiful deciduous tree of py ramidal outline and handsome glossy foliage, becoming gloriously coloured scarlet and yellow in autumn. An exceptionally a ttraetive tree for autumn colour. It likes woodland conditions, with its roots shaded from hot sun, suitable for a very moist position.


Olea-europaea. The fruiting olive. Hardy in gardens along the south and west coast where it often bears fruit.

Olearia. The Daisy Trees of Australia and New Zealand. Beautiful free-flowering, evergreen shrubs with creamy-white aster-like flowers. Easily grown in ordinary garden soil, in sunny positions. All are excellent seaside shrubs.

SPECIES: 0. arborescens (nitida). Large ovate leaves, silvery beneath. Flowers white, fragrant, in large trusses, from July to September. 0. Forsteri. A first-rate seaside shrub with small twisted leaves, white beneath, and deliciously scented flowers in late summer and autumn. It stands wind well, and makes a very choice hedge. 0. Haashi. A very hardy species with small, leathery foliage and large clusters of white, daise-like flowers during late summer. 0. insignis (Pachystcgia). A remarkable shrub with thick leathery leaves up to 7 in. long, with an under surface of thick white tomentum. Its white marguerite-like flowers are 3 in. across. A choice plant for maritime districts. 0. macrodonla. A hardy, vigorous-grow-ing species with attractive holly-like leaves, white beneath, and large heads of white daisy-like flowers during June. 6-12 ft. 0. moschaia. A distinct and graceful species of dwarf habit. 2-3 ft., with small greyish leaves, downy beneath. The small white flowers are produced from July to September.

O. semi-dentata. A very beautiful and quite distinct species with silvery foliage and stems, and large marguerite-liko mauve flowers with violet discs. It likes a moist, well-drained soil. Not hardy except in the south or west. 0. stcllulata. An evergreen, bears white starry flowers in May; must be sheltered at the foot of a wall, facing south.

Oreodaphne. See USTBELLULAEIA.

Osmanthus. A small genus of handsome evergreen shrubs. They thrive in ordinary garden soil, in sun or shade. Perfectly hardy. 0. Aquifolium. A Japanese, slow-growing species, with glossy holly-like foliage. Flowers white, very fragrant, freely pro-duced during September and October. 0. armatus. A particularly handsome Chinese species, and one of the finest evergreen shrubs in cultivation. Leaves very leathery, up to 6 in. long. Flowers creamy-white, fragrant, produced during autumn. Likes semi-shade, and plenty of humus in the soil.

O. Delavayi. A charming little Chinese species of neat habit, with dark glossy green leaves, and fragrant pure white flowers in March and April. Likes semi-shade. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Paliurus Spina – Christi (Christs Thorn). According to tradition the Crown of Thorns was made from its branches. The greenish-yellow flowers are very freely produced during July and August.


Pampas Grass. See CORTADERIA.

Parrotia persica. A beautiful Persian tree growing 12-20 ft. high. Its rather inconspicuous flowers are produced in March. The great charm of the plant is in its superbly-coloured foliage in autumn, when it takes in the most wonderful rich tints of crimson and gold. Quite one of the finest shrubs or trees for autumnal colour.

Passiflora ccerulea (Passion Flower). A very vigorous and beautiful climber for a sunny wall. Flowers flat and open, 3-4 in. across, pale blue, fragrant, borne from June to September. The fruit has a rough, orange-coloured rind, and is about the size of a small hens egg. There is a variety with large ivory-white flowers called Constance Elliott.

Paulownia imperialis. A very handsome deciduous tree with enormous velvety green leaves up to 10 in. long, and violet-blue flowers like large Foxgloves, or Gloxinias. It thrives in warm districts. In colder parts of the country it is useful as a fino foliage plant, and imparts quite a subtropical effect to the garden. It should be kept to a single stem, which is cut back in spring to within 2 in. of the older wood. Select the two strongest from the resultant young growtlis, and later rub out the weaker of the two. Water when necessary, and feed with liquid manure.

Peach, Flowering. See PRITNUS

Pear, Flowering. See PYRTJS.

Pernettya. Dwarf, small-leaved evergreen shrubs with small white flowers followed by very decorative berries. They like a lime-free soil, with plenty of leaf-mould or peat, and full sunshine.

P. mucronala. Red berries.

P. m. alba. White berries.

P. m. BelVs Seedling. Exceptionally large, deep chenyred berries, persisting from September to April.

P. tasmanica. A little gem from Tasmania, never more than 3 in. high. Tiny green leaves, and small white flowers followed by bright red berries.

Perowskia atripliclfolia. A beautiful late-flowering (August and September) shrub, growing up to about 4 ft. Greyish foliage and long spikes of violet-blue flowers. Likes a very sunny position.

Philadelphus (Mock Orange). Deciduous flowering shrubs of great value in the garden. They tlirive in quite poor soil and produce a profusion of their delightfully fragrant flowers during the summer.

SPECIES AND HYBRIDS: P. Coulteri. A Mexican species and rather tender, but well worth a warm wall. Flowers 1 in. across, cup-shaped, and like carved ivory in appearance; very fragrant, scenting the air for some distance from the plant.

P. hybridkis Avalanche. Single white fragrant flowers.

P. h. Virginal, The finest double-flowered variety; flowers 2 in. across in large clusters, pure white and very fragrant. 5-6 ft.

P. h. Voie Lactee. A superb single variety. Flowers pure white, 2 in. across, with showy golden anthers. 3-4 ft.

The above named hybrids flower in June.

P. microphyllus. Flowers very fragrant of pineapple, pure white, stained purple. A small-growing species, not more than 3 ft. high, suitable for rock gardens or very small gardens. July flowering.

P. purpureo-maculatus. A very distinct and beautiful hybrid with fragrant white flowers Ik in. across, with conspicuous purplish-rose blotch at base of petals. 3-4 feet. July.

Phillyrea decora. The finest of the genus, with large glossy green leaves and clusters of pure white fragrant flowers, followed by blackish-purple fruits. 6-10 ft. Will grow in sun or shade.

Phormium tenax. New Zealand Flax. A very striking plant for imparting a subtropical effect in the garden. The bluish sword-like leaves may be ansthing from 3-9 ft. long. The Canna-like flowers are bronzy-red and carried on spikes up to 15 ft. in height. Hardy in all but very cold districts.

Photinia serrulata. A very beautiful evergreen shrub with brownish red leaves in the spring, and white flowers. This shrub is hardy in most winters, but thrives best in the warm south and west districts.

Picea (Spruce Firs). Conifers of pyra-midal habit, of easy cultivation in most soils, except dry, or poor chalky soils. They are distinguished from Abies or Silver Firs in their needle-like leaves, and pendent cones, which do not scatter their seed when ripe. And by a small piece of the bark coming away when a leaf is torn off. They are not recommended for town gardens as a rule. SPECIES AND VARIETIES:

P. alba. The White Spruce of N. America. Very hardy and suitable for cold exposed situations. Leaves glaucous-grey.

P. alberliana conica. An excellent variety for rock gardens, forming a dense pyramid 3 ft. high.

P. excelsa. Common Spruce or Christmas Tree. Native of Europe.

DWARF VARIETIES OP P. EXCELSA: P. e. aurea. Leaves suffused golden.

P. e. Clanbrassiliana. A dense rounded little bush, reaching to about 3 ft. in 30 years.

P. e. Maxwdhi. Forms a flat mound of bright green.

P. e. pumila glauca. Dwarf habit, fan-shaped branches of glaucous foliage.

P. e. Remontii. Forms a neat pyramid.

P. inversa (pendula). The Weeping Spruce.

P. jezaznsis hondamsis. A very orna-mental Spruce and one of the most popular. Leaves bluish-green, vividly white beneath.

P. Morinda. One of the most beautiful. A tall stately tree with weeping branches and long leaves. Himalayas.

P. Omorika. A Serbian species of graceful, slender habit. Thrives in London gardens.

P. orientalis. One of the most attractive. Brilliant dark green foliage. Stands exposure well.

P. pungens Koskriana. A superb variety. Striking blue leaves, with a blue-white bloom.

P. sitchensis. A very accommodating and easily cultivated species. While it will grow in dry soils, it is specially recommended for wet soils, and will make

growths 4 ft. long in a season. Leaves green, silvery beneath.

Pieris. A genua of lovely evergreen flowering shrubs. The foliage is very beautifully coloured in autumn. Flowers usually white, pitcher shaped, borne in racemes or panicles in spring. They thrive under the same conditions as Rhododendrons.


P. jloribunda. 5 ft. Panicles of white pitcher-shaped flowers in March and April.

P. formosa. A Himalayan species and one of the most beautiful. Foliage bright pink shading to crimson in spring, and large white flowers. G-10 ft.

P. japonica. An attractive species with brilliantly coloured young foliage. Flowers pink ageing to white during March and April. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

P. Mariana. Flowers white, tinged with red, and gorgeous autumn foliage.

Pinus (Pine). A very important group of conifers. They thrive in open, well. Drained soils. Not successful in smoky localities. Their leaves are in bundles of twos, threes, or fives. SPECIES:

P. Ayacahuite. A tall and graceful Mexican species with slender leaves jn fives. Remarkable cones up to 18 in. long.

P. Cembra. Of conical outline, rich green foliage, slightly glaucous. An ex. Cellent pine for poor soil. Leaves in fives.

P. insignis. See P. RADIATA.

P. Larico. Foliage dark green. Good for sandy soils.

P. L. nigricans. One of the best pines for chalky soils.

P. parviflora. Japanese White Pine. A picturesque, slow-growing pine, bearing cones in a young state. Leaves generally in fives, greyish-green. Excellent on chalk.

P. radiata (insignis). A Californian species for mild districts. Leaves in threes, grass green. A beautiful, fast-growing pine.

P. strobus. The Weymouth Pine. A quick-growing species with bluish-green foliage.

P. sylvestris. The Scots Pine. A very picturesque native tree, with its red bark, and rugged appearance. A valuable timber tree, supplying the yellow deal of commerce.

Pittosporum. A very interesting genus of evergreen shrubs, generally for the milder parts of the country. Light loamy soil.


P. crassifolium. The Kare of New Zealand. One of the hardiest. Leaves dark green.

P. eugenioides. The Tarata of Xew Zealand. Leaves pale green.

P. tenvifolkcm (nigricans). The Kohuhu of New Zealand. The hardiest of all the Pittosporums, and one of the most beautiful, with glossy pale green wavy leaves and black stems. The flowers are inconspicuous,brownish-purple, deliciously fragrant of honey, apprfent some distance away from the plant. 10-13 ft. according to locality. It forms a hedge of great distinction in mild districts.

P. Tobira. A fairly hardy Chinese species with bright, glossy green leaves and fragrant cream-coloured flowers 1 in. across; reminding one of the scent of orange blossoms.

Plagianthus Lyalhi. A very beautiful, quick-growing shrub or small tree from New Zealand, with heart-shaped, bright green leaves. Flowers of an exquisite translucent white, and numerous golden stamons, freely produced during June and July. Hardy in all but cold.

Districts. Not particular as to soils. Likes full sun.

Platanus (Plane). Handsome large-growing trees much used for street planting. They like a deep, moist loam, and sunny positions. The Planes are trees for the south more than for cold localities.

P. acerifolia. A noble tree, well known as the LondonPlane. Its native country is unknown.

P. orientalis. Not so quick growing as the LondonPlane, but of more picturesque and pleasing appearance, especially as an isolated specimen.

Plum, Flowering. See PRUNUS.

Polygala. Charming, creeping evergreen shrubs about 6-12 in. high, with box-like leaves, and pea-shaped flowers in spring. They like a lime-free soil, and semi-shade.


P. Chamaibvxus. Forms a mass of bright yellow flowers from March to May.

P. C. purpurea. Bi-coloured flowers, rich purple, with yellow keel, produced throughout the spring and summer.

Polygonum Baldschuanicum. A deciduous climber of exceptional vigour, growing up to 20 ft. in a season. Ultimate height about 40 ft. During the summer and autumn the plant is smothered with a cloud of pale pinky-white flowers-Pomegranate. See PUIJICA.

Peppy Tree. See ROMKEYA.

Populus (Poplars). A large genus of unusually fast-growing trees, valuable as wind-breaks and tall shade trees. Generally speaking the Poplars tiirive in almost any soil, except dry or chalky soils.


P. alba nivca. The best of the European White Poplars. Leaves white beneath. Excellent for exposed situations, inland or by the sea.

P. canescens. The Grey Poplar of this country and parts of Europe. It differs from the preceding species in having a grey under-surface instead of white.

Very good on chalky soils.

P. Evgenei. A German-raised hybrid. One of the fastest-growing Poplars, of columnar habit. A valuable timber tree.

P. lasioairpa. A remarkable Chinese species with very long bright green leaves about 12 in. long, with mid-rib and stalk red.

P. nigra italica. The Lombardy Poplar. Forms an effective tree of pyramidal shape.

P. tremula. The Aspen Poplar. It takes its specific name from perpetual quivering of its leaves.

Potentilla. Deciduous, hardy shrub with an abundance of flowers, like small single roses throughout the summer and autumn. Ordinary soil, in sun or semi-shade.


P. davurica. Diminutive Chinese species with white flowers.

P. Friederichsenii ochroleuca. Greyish foliage and yellow flowers from June to September.

P. fruticosa Farreri. A very charming Bpecies from Tibet, with bright, buttercup flowers from August to Septomber.

P. f. Veitchii. A fine Chinese variety, with pleasing grey leaves and large snow-white flowers.

P. f. Vilmoriniana. An attractive silvery-leaved variety bearing creamy-white flowers. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Privet. See LIGUSTRUM.

Prostanthera rotundifolla. A very beautiful Australian aromatic evergreen shrub for a sheltered wall. Attractive heliotrope-coloured flowers in June and July. Likes a bine-free soil.

Prunus. A large and exceptionally beautiful genus of flowering trees, of the utmost value in our gardens during the spring months. The genus includes almonds, cherries, peaches, apricots, bird cherries and cherry laurel, and some of the most useful and distinct are enumerated hereunder. They are all deciduous except the cherry laurel.

FLOWERING ALMONDS, PEACHES AND APRICOTS GROUP: P. Amygdalus (Common Almond). The well-known flowering Almond, opening its welcome blossoms in March.

P. per ska Clara Meyer. A magnificent flowering Peach bearing deep pink double flowers.

P. triloba flore pleno. A Chinese Apricot, with double rose flowers 1-in. Across. Best against a warm wall. PLUM GROUP:

P. cerasifcra Pissartii (atropurpurea). The well-known purple-leaved Plum, bearing rose-coloured flowers in March. BIRD CHERRY GROUP:

P. Padus. White flowers during April and May.

LAUROOERASUS (CHERRY LAUREL) GROUP: P. Laurocerasu3. The Common Laurel. There are several varieties of which the following are among the best: 23 P. L. anguslifolia. Narrow leaves. P. L. camellicrfolia. Leaves curled and twisted like camellia leaves.

P. L. colrJiica. Free flowering.

P. L. latifolia. Broad leaves.

P. L. pyramidalis. Easily pressed into perfect pyramids.

P. lusitanica. The well-known Portugal Laurel.

FLOWERING CHERRIES (CERASUS) GROUP: P. Avium flore plena. The double-flowering form of our native cherry (Bean) is one of the most, beautiful of all flowering trees, with white flowers. May flowering. Award of Garden Merit. R.H.S.

P. Conradinae. Chinese speeiea with flesh-pink flowers very freely produced in April.

P. inciaa. Chinese species with deeply-Cut leaves, and pale pink blossom in great profusion, in May.

JAPANESE CHERRIES: The Japanese Flowering Cherries have been grown by Japanese gardeners for many centuries, and are among the most admired of all flowers cultivated in Japan.

They like a rich, open soil and sunny position, but they do well in ordinary garden soil if well drained.

The following varieties are all very beautiful: Ama-no-gawa. Flowers apple-blossom-pink, fragrant, semi-double. Owing to ita upright habit, this variety is very useful for small gardens.

Fugenzo (etmdata Veitchidna). A very popular variety, well known under the name of James H. Veitch. Large double deep rose-pink flowers.

Kanzan (Kizakura of Nurseries). One of the most popular and beautiful varieties. Large semi-double flowers, crimson in bud, opening to a deep rose-pink. Young foliage bright coppery-red.

Sargentii. Possibly the loveliest of all Japanese Cherries. Flowers delicate shell-pink, contrasting exquisitely with the vivid copper-red young foliage.- In the autumn the leaves turn deep orimson.

Shidare-Zakura. The Oriental Weeping Cherry. Large, double deep pink flowers on long drooping branches. Seen to best advantage when grown as a tall standard.

Svbhirtella autumnalis. Semi-double, almond-scented, pale shell-pink flowara from October or November to April. The best results are obtained from plants on their own roots. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Ukon. A very distinct Cherry, with large, semi-double pale greenish-yellow flowers, and bronzy foliage.

PseudoJaris Fortune! (Kaempferi). The deciduous Golden Larch of China. A very beautiful tree with young foliage of a tender green, turning to a rich golden-yellow in autumn.

Pseudotsuga Douglasil (Douglas Fir). A very beautiful tree of extraordinary rapid growth, With plume-like foliage of various shades of green.

Punica granarum (Pomegranate). A very handsome and attractive deciduous flowering shrub suitable for a south or west wall. The flowers, of a rich scarlet, are produced freely from June to September, and are very beautiful. It only fruits occasionally in this country. There are forms with double red, and double white flowers and a dwarf-growing variety called P. g. nana.

Pyracaritha cocciriea Lalandii. The popular Fiery Thorn with white hawthorn-like flowers followed by masses of brilliant coral-rod berries. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Pyrus. An extensive genus comprising Pears, Apples and Crabs, Whitebeams, Mountain Ash, eto. They all thrive in good garden soil. A few of the most useful are described under their different sections.

P. salicifnlia. The Willow-leaved Pear-A very ornamental and beautiful tree with long willow-like silvery-white leaves, and clusters of creamy-white flowers. MALUS – FLOWERING CRABS:

P. coronaria. Flowers white, tinged with rose, violet Scented. The flowers and leaves appear together during May and June.

P. Eleyi. A very fine hybrid of recent introduction, attractive in leaf, flower, and fruit. The leaves and young wood are purplish, the flowers rich wine-red, and the fruits resemble in size and colour, ripe Morelle cherries. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

P.Jlaribunda. A beautiful .Tapaneso Crab with long drooping branches, garlanded with bluish-whit flowers, crimson in bud. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

P. purpurea. A beautiful hybrid with dark purple-green leaves, and rich rosy-crimson flowers, followed by small purple fruits. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

P. spectabilis. A fine Chinese species, with deep red flowers paling to blush, nearly 2 in. across.

AEIA – WBXTEBE AMS : Aria majestica. A native plant with large, bright green leaves, and masses of scarlet fruit in autumn.

SORBUSM – MOUNTAIN ASH: A ucuparia. Our native Rowan or Mountain Ash.

A. pendula. The Weeping Mountain Ash.

A. Vihnorinii. A very lovely small tree with graceful, dainty foliage, and clusters of fruits, rosy-red, changing to delicate rosy-mauve.

Quercus (Oak). A very large genua of stately deciduous and evergreen trees. The following are few of the most useful for garden purposes.

Q. coccinea splendens, or Knap Hill Scarlet Oak. An exceptionally fine form of the N. American Scarlet Oak, having very rich autumn colouring. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

Q. pedunculata purpurascens. A variety of our English Oak with leaves resembling those of the Purple Beech.

Q. Ilex (Holm Oak). Evergreen tree of large size, with variable leaves, covered on both surfaces with whitish down when young, which Boon falls off, leaving the upper surface a dark glossy green. Will grow almost anywhere, and in all kinds of soil. Makes a good wind break in seaside localities.

Quince. See CxDONIA.

Raphiolepis japonica (Ovata). A splendid slow-growing evergreen, with dark green leathery leaves and numerous racemes of hawthorn-like fragrant flowers during June. Fruits blue-black. An excellent seaside shrub.

Red Bud. See CEBCIS.

Retinospora. See COTIIESSUS.


A comprehensive genus of magnificent evergreen and deciduous flowering shrubs of supreme beauty and utility. Peat is not necessary to their successful cultivation as is so generally supposed. They thrive in loam, leaf-mould, and abundance of sand. Very firm planting is desirable. Top dress with leaves or old manure annually. The following is a list of the most useful species and hybrids for ordinary gardens. SPECIES :

R. caloslrolum. Beautiful rose-coloured flowers, 18 in. A fine rock-garden species. Likes plenty of moisture.

R. campanulalum. Pale lavonder.

R. campylocmpum. Very beautiful yellow, honey-scented flowers.

R. cUialum. Rosy-pink. Very hardy.

R. decorum. Waxy-white tinged pink.

R. Griersonianum. A superb species, with large rosy-scarlet flowers.

R. hippophecoides. Dwarf, small laven-der-bluish flowers. Fine in a mass. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S.

R. orbkulare. One of the most beautiful. Flowers pure rose.

R. racemosum. Charming dwarf species, bearing a profusion of small pink flowers. A fine rock garden shrub. There are two forms, one growing 1 ft. high, the other attains 3 ft.

R. Williamsianum. A rare species and one of the finest of the genus. Flowers pure rose-pink, in loose trusses. Dwarf spreading habit, seldom growing more than 1 ft. high.


Alice, rich pink.

Ascot Brilliant, deep blood-red, very fine.

Bernard Crisp, vivid pink.

Countess of Athlone, deep mauve.

Doncaster, scarlet-crimson.

Dr. Stocker, creamy-white, tinted rose.

Ivorys Scarlet, intense scarlet.

Kewense, blush pink.

Loders White, the fines Avhite.

Nobleanum, rosy-scarlet. Commences to flower about December, and continues until March. Award of Garden Merit, B.H.S.

Pink Pearl, enormous truss.

Pracox, rosy-purple flowers during March and April.

Purple Splendour.

AZALEAS : (Now included in Rhododendron.) Arborescens. A magnificent North American species, producing large fragrant, pale flesh-coloured flowers with the laves, during July.

Calendulacea. Vivid orange flame-coloured flowers.

KcBmpferi. Orange-red.

Nudiflora. Fragrant pink flowers.

Occidentalis. Very fragrant white flowers.

Pontica. Common yellow Azalea. Very fragrant flowers. Foliage beautifully coloured in autumn.

Vaseyi. Pale pink, very beautiful. Foliage brilliantly coloured in autumn. Award of Garden Merit, R.H.S. HYBRIDS :

Daviesii, white.

Gloria Mundi, vermilion.

Kosters Brilliant Red. A new hybrid with glowing orange-red flowers.

Nancy Waterer.

Pallas, red.

Sange de Gentbrugge, crimson.

Anthony Koster, rich yellow.

T. J. Seidil, deep salmon.

Madame A. Kosler, apple blossom.

Rhus (Sumach). Handsome foliage shrubs, the brilliancy of which is enhanced by planting in poor soil. SPECIES :

B. colinoides. A superb shrub for autumn colour. Leaves turn to all shades of scarlet, claret, orange, etc.

B. Cotiniis. Smoke Tree. Glaucous foliage, turning yellow in autumn.

B. C. folius purpurea. Wine-coloured foliage.

B. typhina. Leaves up to 2 ft. long, turning to orange-red and purple in autumn.

Ribes sanguineum splendeiis. A very fine form of the Flowering Currant, covered with blood-red flowers in April.

Robinia (Acacias). Very beautiful trees with fern-like leaves, and wistarialike flowers. They thrive in practically any kind of soil.


B. hispida (Rose Acacia). Flowers deep rose. A delightful small tree, and worthy of a place in every garden. Protect from strong wind.

B. Pseudacacia (False Acacia). Fragrant white flowers. A very attractive) tree.

Rock-Rose. See CISTUS.

Romneya Coulter! (Californian Tree Poppy). Large poppy-like flowers, 45 in. across, from July onwards. Foliage glaucous. Ordinary soil in full sun.

Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). A well-known and historical plant flowering during May and June. There is a form of pyramidal habit, one with white flowers, and a very beautiful prostrate growing form.


Rubus (Bramble). Deciduous shrubs valuable on account of their flowers, foliage, or colour of their stems. They thrive in the poorest soils, and in almost any position.


E. deliciosus. A fine species from the Rocky Mountains, 5-8 ft. high, with beautiful pure white flowers 2 in. across, during May and June.

R. Giraldianus. Vivid whito stems and elegant foliage.

R. odoratus. Fragrant bright purple flowers from July to September.

Ruscus aculeatus (Native Butchers Broom). An evergreen berry – bearing shrub useful for planting in very shady places, where few other plants would thrive. Berries large bright red. Plants of both sexes are needed if a crop of berries is looked for. Cut sprays last well indoors.

St. Johns Wort. See HYPERICUM.

Salisburia. See GINKGO.

Salix (Willows and Osiers). A very large genus of trees and shrubs, distinguished for their graceful beauty when grown by the waterside, although the presence of water is not necessary. SPECIES :

S. a. argenlea. The Silver Willow. A very beautiful variety of our native willow with silvery-whitish leaves. Very beautiful semi-weeping habit.

S. lanata. 2-3 ft. Round silvery leaves.

S. relusa. A creeping species only a few inches high.

S. vilellina. The Golden Willow. An ornamental willow with golden-yellow branches.

S. v. pendida. A beautiful weeping variety.

Salvia. Shrubby Sage. Very ornamental sun-loving shrubs, thriving in poor stony soil.


S. azurea grandijlora, azure-blue.

S. Grahamii, brilliant scarlet.

S. Greggii, vivid carmine.

Schizandra. A small genus of climbing shrubs, with beautiful flowers and attractive fruits.


S. chinensis. Rose-pink flowers during April and May, followed by scarlet fruits 2 in. long, retained until the autumn.

S. grandijlora rubriflora. Flowers deep red, fruit scarlet.

Sciadopitys verticillata. Japanese Umbrella Pine. One of the most beautiful of all coniferous trees, and quite distinct. It takes its specific name from the arrangement of the spiny foliage, which resembles the ribs of an umbrella. Likes a loamy soil freo from lime, and plenty of decayed leaves.

Sea Buckthorn. See IIIPPOPHJE.

Senecio Greyi. A New Zealand evergreen shrub, 3-4 ft. high, with fine silvery-grey leaves and large heads of golden-yellow daisy-like flowers in June. Likes a warm position.

Silverbell-tree. See HALENA.

Skimmia. Useful shade-loving evergreens, bearing fragrant whito flowers in spring, followed by beautiful bright scarlet berries, persisting until the spring. Birds do not touch them. Plant one male plant to five or six female plants to ensure a good crop of berries. SPECIES:

S. Fortunei. Deep crimson fruits. China.

S. japonica Foremanii. A fine female form with large leaves. Round scarlet fruits very freely borne.

S. j. fragrans. The best male form.

Smoke Tree. See RHUS COTINUS.


Snowdrop Tree. See HALESIA CAROLINA.

Solanum crispum. A beautiful semi-evergreen Chilean climbing shrub. Flowers rich blue and yellow. 15 ft.

Sophora. Very striking evergreen and deciduous trees, with elegant foliage and pea-like flowers.


S. microphylla. Very beautiful Chinese species, with 9-in. Long panicles of golden-yellow flowers in September. Hardy.

S. telraptera. Evergreen. A New Zealand tree with fine acacia-like foliage and yellow flowers. For mild districts.

S. viciifolia. Deciduous. Blue and white flowers, and very attractive foliage. June flowering. Beautiful on a south or west wall.

Southernwood. See ARTEMISIA.

Spartium junceum (The Spanish Broom). A very valuable flowering shrub producing large, fragrant, rich glowing yellow flowers from July until frost. Will thrive anywhere. A fine plant for a hot dry bank, poor sandy soils and chalk. 8-10 ft.

Speedwell. See VERONICA.

Spirsea. A very useful and ornamental genus of deciduous flowering shrubs with attractive foliage. The flowers are white, pink or crimson, and the blooming period is from spring to autumn. Excellent for waterside planting. SPECIES:

S. Aitchisonii. Plumes of snow-white flowers during July and August. 8 ft.

S. arborea. Huge plumes of cream-coloured flowers. July to September. 20 ft.

S. arguta. Pure white. April and May-5 ft.

S. bullata. Deep rosy-crimson. 1 ft.

S. Ilenryi. Vigorous, wide spreading species requiring plenty of space. Flowers white in June. G-S ft.

S. Menziesii iriumphans. Rich, deep rose. 3-5 ft. Not a success on chalky soils.

S. Thunbergii. Snow-white flowers during March and April. The earliest flowering species. Not a success on chalky soils. Rich autumn foliage.

S. van HouUei. A fine whire-flowered hybrid of elegant habit, June flowering.

Spruce. See PIOEA.

Staphylea colchica (The Bladder Nut). A distinct and beautiful shrub with handsome foliage and large panicles of snow-white flowers, followed by curious bladder-like pods. 6-9 feet.

Strawberry Tree. See ARBUTUS.

Styrax japonlcus. A graceful and beautiful Japanese tree, bearing white, nodding, snowdrop-like flowers during June and July. Quite hardy, but likes a sheltered position. 15-20 feet.

Sumach. See RHUS.

Sun Rose. See HEUANTHUM.

Sweet Chestnut. See CASTANEA.


Sycamore. See Aoits PSEUDOPLATA-

Syrlnga (Lilac). Very popular, easily grown deciduous shrubs bearing panicles of fragrant flowers. They thrive in ordinary garden soils, especially those of a chalky nature. But to obtain the first panicles of bloom a fairly rich soil and full sun are desirable.

SPECIES AKD VARIETIES: S. japonica. Flowers white, inodorous, in pyramidal pauicles 8-12 in, long, at the latter part of June.

S. persica. A delightful species of neat habit, and fragrant blossoms of the same colour as the common lilac. May flowering. G ft.

S. vulgaris. The Common Lilac. The following varieties are recommended.

Charles Joly. Double, dark red, very fine.

Hugo Koster. Single, purplish-crimson.

Madame Lemoine. Double, white.

Madame Francisque Morel. Single, enormous panicles up to 18 in. long of beautiful violet-pink flowers.

Mont Blanc. Single, pure white.

President Grevy. Double, bluish-lilac.

Souvenir do Louis Spath. Single, dark wine-purple. Extra fine.

Tamarix (Tamarisk). Useful, fast growing shrubs, especially useful for seaside districts.


T. gattica. Plumes of pink flowers from July to September. .10 ft. jf. PeiUamlra. A very graceful shrub bearing masses of carmine-pink flower during July and August. 12 ft.

T. tetrandra purpurea. Darker flowers than the above, flowering during April and May. 10 ft.

Taxodium dJstichum. The deoid-uons or Swamp Cypress. A very beautiful and attractive tree, and one of the few deciduous conifers. Of pyramidal outline, and fine feathery foliage of very tender green, becoming orange-brown during the autumn. It is very accommodating and will flourish in moist, marshy soil, but not on chalk.

Taxus (Yew). Valuable and well-known evergreen, thriving in almost any soil in sun or shade.


T. toccata. English Yew. Too well known to need description.

T. b. aurea. Golden leaved in spring, becoming green in winter.

T. fnMigiata. Irish Yew. Of very erect growth. Excellent for formal gardens.

T. f. aurea. Golden-leaved Irish Yew.

T. . Dwarf form, suitable for rock gardens.

T. cuspidata nana. Dwarf growing (3 ft.) form of the Japanese Yew.


Thuya. Thuja. The Arbor-vitas are handsome trees and shrubs of pyramidal form, and are closely related to the Cy-presses. Not particular as to soils. SPECIES:

T. dolabrata. A beautiful Japanese tree with dark green leaves, and a whitish under surface. Grows well in shade.

T. d. nana. Slow growing form, very suitable for the rock garden.

T. Jjobii. See T. PUOATA.

T. occidcntalie. The American Arbor-vitse. Very hardy, but inferior to T. plicata.

T. Ellxoangeriana. A distinct form with light grey-green, soft, feathery foliage. Makea a very attractive bush 4-5 ft. high, if their long leaders are cut back as they shoot up. . plicata (Lobbii gigantea). Lobbs Arbor-vitaa. The handsomest and strongest growing of the Thuyas. A beautiful tree, of graceful, pyramidal habit, with dark glassy green, aromatic foliage. Of rapid growth. Makes a first-rate hedge, and bears hard cutting back.

T. p. fastiagata. Forms a line specimen tree.

T. p. zehrina. Vivid yellow foliage.

Tilia (Lime). Of easy cultivation in ordinary soil.

SPECIES AND HYBRIDS: T. euchlora. A valuable hybrid Lime, on account of its resistance to insect pests of all kinds. Leaves dark and lustrous. J. Michauxii. A magnificent tree with the largest leaves of any Lime in cultivation.

T. petiolaris. The Weeping Silver Lime. One of the most attractive of all pendulous trees. Large, heart-shaped leaves with the under Burface covered with whitish down.

T. vulgaris. The Common Lime. This is the most popular for street planting, but it is inferior for this purpose, to several of the preceding.

Tree of Heaven. See AILANTHUS.

Tsuga (Hemlock Spruce). A small genua of beautiful Conifers. They thrive in deep moist soil well drained.


T. Alberiiana. The Western Hemlock. A Western N. American tree of graceful, conical appearance, and glossy dark green leaves.

T. canadensis. The Eastern Hemlock. Differing from the preceding in its more bushy habit of growth.

T. e. pevdula. A very attractive variety, with graceful weeping branches, Suitable for large rock gardens.

Tulip Tree. See LmiODENDRON.

Ulex europaeus fiore pleno. The beautiful double-flowered Gorse or Furze. Thrives on poor, atony 6oils or dry banks.

Ulmus (Elm). Noble trees thriving on all soils, including chalky soils. SPECIES: U. campeslris. The English Elm.

U. c. Louis van Houtte. Leaves yellow, remaining so throughout the summer.

U. muntana. The Scotch or Wych Elm. Large broad foliage.

U. m. pendula. The Weeping Elm. Forms a perfect umbrella -shaped tree.

V. jmmila. The Dwarf Elm. A miniature shrub or small tree, suitable for restricted gardens.

U. etricla. The Cornish Elm. Of perfect pyramidal shape, excellent for street or avenue planting.

Umbrella Tree. See SOTADOPITYS.

Vaccinlum. An interesting genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs for moist, peaty soils. Bell-shaped flowers, and berries of various colours. SPECIES:

P. corymbosum. A North American Bhrub 2-5 ft. high, bearing numerous clusters of pale pink flowers during May. Foliage in autumn vivid scarlet.

V. glauco-albvm. A Himalayan species 3-5 ft. high, with oval grey leaves, blue-white beneath, flowers pink, fruits black. Rather tender.

V. ovatum. A compact-growing species from Vancouver, 6-10 ft. The young foliage is very attractive in spring. Flowers white, lily – of – the – valley – like during September.

V. padifolium. A beautiful red-branched species from Madeira with oval leaves, becoming dark red in autumn. Pale yellow bell-shaped flowers, and blue-black berries.

V. Vitis-idcea. A creeping evergreen native shrub 6-9 in. high, with boxlike leaves, and nodding bell-shaped rosy flowers during May and June.

Verbena, Sweet-scented. SeeLrppiA.

Veronica (Speedwells). A large genus of neat foliaged evergreens, mostly natives of New Zealand. They flourish in ordinary soil and like full sun.

SPECIES A-ND HYBRIDS: P. Andersonii. Violet-blue flowers during August and September. 3 ft.

V. Armstrongii. Dwarf compact growing, forming cushions of golden foliage. Flowers white during July and August.

V. Autumn Qlory. Deep violet-blue flowers from July to December.

P. cupressoides. A rounded bush 1-3 ft. high, bearing pale lilac-blue flowers in July.

V. glauco ccerulea. Of prostrate habit, with greyish foliage and dark purple-blue flowers from June to August. Excellent for the rock garden.

P. Hulkeana. A very beautiful species, bearing huge panicles of delicate lavender-blue flowers during May and June. Needs a sunny wall and a mild district to prosper.

P. Matthewsii. Forms a graoeful bush 2-3 ft. high, smothered in July and August with beautiful pale pink and white flowers.

P. speciosa hybrida, Alicia Amherst. Deep blue-purple.

P. s. h. Cookiana. Large white.

P. s. h. Gloriosa. Bright pink.

V. s. h. La Seduisante. Bright crimson.

V. Traversii. A very hardy and accommodating species, thriving anywhere. White (lowers freely produced during July and August.

Viburnum. An extensive genus of beautiful spring-flowering shrubs, easily grown in deep loamy soil. Certain species have attractively coloured foliage in the autumn.


V. Carlesii. Korea. Sweetly scented white flowers suffused pink, produced during April. 3-4ft. A first rate seaside shrub.

V. Davidii. China. A low-spreading shrub 2 feet high and more wide. Bright green leaves and attractive turquoise-bluo berries.

V. D. fcemina. This, the female form, is necessary to plant with the above in order to obtain the beautiful berries.

V. fragrans. A Chinese species with exquisitely fragrant flesh pink flowers produced during autumn and winter.

V. Henryi. An ornamental shrub with dark green leaves and white flowers, followed by bright red fruits ageing to black. China.

V. japonicum. A handsome Japanese shrub bearing fragrant white flowers in June.

V. Lantana. The native Wayfaring Tree. Clusters of white flowers in May and June. Berries bright red, changing to black. Brilliant autumn foliage.

V. Opulus sterile. (Snowball Tree). Round balls of snow-white flowers during May and June.

V. rhytidophyllum. A striking Chinese shrub with large glossy leaves, deeply wrinkled on the upper surface and covered below with thick greyish down. Large trusses of creamy flowers during May and June, followed by rod berries, turning to black.

V. Bieboldii. A vigorous growing 23 Japanese species, with vary attractive pale rose and bronze foliage, both in spring and autumn.

V. ti7ius. The Laurustinus. White flowers from December to March.

V. tomenlosum MarieSit. A very orna-mental variety from Japan. White flowers in May and June.

V. utile. A graceful and attractive evergreen with round heads of waxy-white flowers in May, followed by blue-black fruits.

Virginia Creeper. See Vrris QUIN-QUEFOLIA.

Vitis. One of the most important genus of hardy climbers. Valuable for their great luxuriance, noble foliage, and superb autumn colour. They are of easy cultivation in good loamy soil. SPECIES:

V. Coignetiae. A magnificent Japaneso species with enormous leaves up to 12 in. across, of vivid hues of crimson, orange and yellow in autumn.

V. Davidii (armata). Chinese species with large heart-shaped dark green leaves turning brilliant red in autumn.

V. Henryana. An exceptionally beautiful self-clinging Chinese species, allied to the Virginia Creeper. Leaves bright velvety green, veined silver and pink, becoming brilliant red in autumn.

V. hclerophylla. A luxuriant climber with large lobed leaves becoming golden in autumn. The charm of the plant is in the beautiful turquoise-blue berries nestling among the foliage.

V. inconstaiis Veitchii (Ampelopsis Veitchii). The popular self-clinger of unsurpassed brilliancy of autumn colour.

V. Thunbcrgii. The Fig-leaved Vine. A beautiful species with dainty deeply-lobcd leaves turning rich crimson in autumn. Sometimes confused with V. Coignetiae, but it is quite distinct.

F. vinifera purpurea. The Claret-lea vod Vine. Leaves of a beautiful olaret- red throughout the season. Very effective rambling through s shrub with silvery foliage.

Walnut. See JTTGLANS.

Weigela. See DIERVILLA.

Wellingtonla. See SEQUOIA; Willows. See SALIX.

Wistaria. Possibly the most beautiful aod ornamental hardy climbers in cultivation, too well known to need description. Not particular as to soil, but sun is essential.


W. chinensis. The Chinese Wistaria, bearing a wonderful profusion of pendulous racemes of lilac flowers.

W. c. alba. The white-flowered form.

W. multijnga. The Japanese Wistaria. Enormous racemes (1-6$ ft. long) of pale iflao and purplish-blue flowers.

W. m. alba. The white-flowered form.

Witch Hazel. See HAMAMKLIS.

Yew. See TAXUS.

Yucca. Stately evergreens with swordlike leaves, majestic spikes of bell-shaped flowers. Useful for adding dignity to a garden, and for imparting a subtropical effect. Plant in hot. Dry positions. SPBCTBS: 7. filamentosa. Flowers pendulous, yellowish-white, 2-3 in. across, in conical panicles, during July and August.

Y. gloriosa. Adams Needle. Flowers pendulous, creamy-white, on imposing spikes, 4 ft. long, from July to September. A very fine species. 7. recurva. Cream flowers in 3 ft. panicles. Re-ourved glaucous foliage.

Zenobia speciosa. One of the most beautiful flowering shrubs in cultivation, baring large pendent, bell-shaped pure white flowers during June and July. It likes peat or leaf-mould added to the soil, and a gemi-shadod position.

Z.s. Pulvendvnta. Even more beautiful than the preceding, with larger flowers and very jdaucous foliage.

SEASIDE Although a great many shrubs and trees thrive in maritime districts, the following are recommended as being specially suitable for seaside gardens. The list contains those trees and shrubs which prosper in windswept positions, and reference should be made to each genus for the most suitable species and varieties: Abies.


Sweet Bay.









Lavender (Latxndubi).


Sea Buckthorn (Jlippopha).

Dracaena (Cordyline).

Myrtle (Myrtws).

Cupressus macrocarpa eheltcr4 Pinus insignis.

P. austriaca.

P. Laricio.

P. muircata.

P. Pinaster.

P. radiator

P. Thunbergii.

Tamarisk (Tamarix).

Holly (Ilex).

Broom (Cytisus, Genista, Spartium) Bibes.






Furze (Ulex).


Spartium juncewm (Spanish Broom)t

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