SPORTS

ARCHERY.

Archery was the first English sport. Sizes of modern bows range from 5 ft. 3 ins. to 6 ft., weight of pull from 20 to 04 lbs. Constructed of yew or hickory, in two strips bound together. The strings are made of twisted hemp. The arrows range from a. maximum of 30 inches long : made of lime wood or deal, well seasoned. Targets are made of twisted straw covered with canvas. The bull’s eye is marked in gold, surrounded by red. blue, black and white circlets. The scoring is in points, 0, 7, 5, 3 and 1 respectively. BADMINTON.

A winter game resembling Lawn Tennis, but not so strenuous. Easy to learn. The players, 2 or 4, stand on opposite sides of a 5-ft. upright net and knock a feathered shuttle from side to sida with a light racket. The handle of the latter is longer than that of a tennis racket, and the gut surface smaller and rounder. When one player fails to return the shuttlecock, a point is lost. The court, either indoor or outdoor, is 40 feet long by 17 feet wide for singles, or 20 feet wide for doubles. When serving, the racket must not be raised above the elbow and all strokes are made underhand. The player scoring 15 points wins. BASEBALL.

The national game of America. Is played exactly like Rounders on a large scale. The grassy ground, 500 feet by 350 feet, contains a 90 leet diamond shaped pitch, the four angles being called Bases and known respectively as the First, Second and Third Base and the Home Nine men a side play, and the Pitcher is in the centre of the pitch, the Catcher behind the Home Base, and the three Base men near the appropriate bases. The other players are stationed according to the rules, and the game is controlled by an Umpire.

BOWLS.

This English game is played on a grass Green by singles, pairs or quartettes, with heavy biassed balls of lignum vitas. The object of the game is to place the bowl as near as possible to a white ‘ jack ‘ which has previously been rolled on to the Green some distance from the players. The game is played in a series of ‘ ends,’ points being scored by the bowl lying nearest to the ‘ jack ‘ after each ‘ end ‘ is played. Twenty-one points constitute a win. The players wear rubber shoes and they bowl from a rubber mat. BOXING.

Contested in a roped- in ring, 12 feet to 20 feet square. Points are awarded for graceful and clean hitting and for agility in defence. Fouls are claimed for kicking, shouldering, open-hand hitting. or hitting below the belt. Failing a ‘ knock-out ‘ the contest is decided entirely on points. The amateur match consists of three two-minute rounds with a minute’s rest between. A time-keeper, referee, and two judges are necessary, the referee having the final word. CRICKET.

Played by opposing teams of eleven a side on a well-rolled turfed field, 22 yards from wicket to wicket. The bat is 4J inches wide, and length over-all is 38 inches. The ball is of compressed cork, leather covered, and weighs 5i ounces. Six consecutive balls comprise an ‘ over,’ The game ha3 an elaborate system of rules. The final decision in a match rests with the Umpire.

CROQUET.

Played on a grass court 35 yards by 28 yards, and bellagged at each corner. The object is to strike the balls from the starting peg through hoops up one side of the court to the opposite final peg, returning again through the hoops along the opposite side to the starting peg. Each player affixes a clip with bis colour or number upon the hoop at which he intends to aim. A long-handled wooden mallet and four wooden balls, 3J inches in diameter, and coloured blue, red, black and yellow, are used. The blue and black balls oppose red and yellow. The hoops stand 12 inches above the ground, and 3f inches wide inside. The wooden pegs stand 18 inches above the ground. Has an elaborate system of rules, and the game is won by the person, or side, which first scores all points in proper order.

CURLING.

A winter sport played on a real or artificial ice rink 32 yards or 42 yards long. Played by four men a side in a somewhat similar manner to Bowls. The contestants use two granite stones, not exceeding 44 lbs. each in weight, having iron handles. CYCLING.

A healthy form of exercise, if it is not overdone,

Cycling to excess makes heavy demands on the muscles of the heart, but a gentle spin at the week-end is the most invigorating, health-giving, and interesting relaxation for anyone engaged in an indoor occupation. FENCING.

This gymnastic exercise, which develops muscle, suppleness and quickness of eye, must be studied systematically under a capable instructor. The length of the foil is about 41 inches—33 inches in the blade and 8 inches in hilt. The blade is rapier-shaped and terminates in a flattened end. Wire masks are worn to protect the face. Knee-breeches are advised for men and shorts for women. The foil is primarily the pastime of the amateur of both sexes. FISHING.

There are various kinds : sea, pond and river, with rod and line, with net, or by the much rarer methods of spear or trap. It may be bottom, suspended bait, or surface (fly) fishing The rod, line, and hooks should be selected according to the type of fishing indulged in. A stout rod is required for bottom fishing, but fly fishing requires a light and flexible rod made up in joints. The line should be of silk, cotton or twine, terminating in catgut. Great care should be taken in selecting the right type of hook. For bait fishing, a float is required, to regulate the depth of the suspension of the hook in the water. The fish required should be studied carefully to ascertain what type of bait it prefers, and the bait or fly should be selected accordingly. The bait should cover the hook entirely. Fish have good eyesight and hearing, and quiet is necessary when angling. Skill is required in casting the line, and also in landing the fish when caught. In fact, the would-be fisherman must study his subject scientifically if he wishes to be successful

FOOTBALL.

Association is played by two teams of eleven men a side on a field from 100 to 130 yards long and 50 to 100 yards wide. The goalposts are 8 yards apart, and the crossbar is 8 feet from the ground. The centre line is drawn midway between the two goalposts, and the penalty area extends 13 yards from the goalmouth for a distance of 44 yards parallel therewith. The two extremes on either side of the field are called touch lines. The ball is a round leather-covered bladder of a maximum measurement of 28 inches in circumference. The members of one side attempt to shoot the ball between the posts of the antagonists’ goal, and assist their own goalkeeper in defending the home goal mouth. Each man has his own station on the field. No man may handle the ball when in play with the exception of the goalkeeper, and a player may not push or detain an opponent with the hands, or trip or kick him on pain of a penalty shot awarded against his side Each time a goal is scored the ball must be kicked off again from the centre of the field. The game is regulated by the referee, who is assisted by the two linesmen.

FOOTBALL.

Rugby. In this game the teams number fifteen men a side. The ball is oval in shape, and the players are permitted to pick up the ball whenever it is bouncing or rolling, and run with it towards the opposing goal. Tackled by one of the other side, he must immediately throw the ball to a colleague who continues the run and endeavours to kick it over the enemy’s goalpost. These latter stand 11 feet in height, the crossbar being 10 feet from the ground, and the two posts 18J feet apart. The ball has a circumference of from 30 to 31 inches, its girth being about 26 inches, and its weight between 13 and 14 ounces. The field should be 110 yards long and 76 yards wide with a 25 yard ‘ in goal’ area behind this at either end. When a foul is awarded, the ‘ scrum,’ or scrummage, is formed, by eight forwards from either side facing each other with lowered heads; the ball is then thrown between the two ranks, and a struggle ensues for its possession. A ‘ try ‘ is gained by the player who first touches the ball on the ground in the enemy’s ‘ in-goal,’ for which three points are awarded him. The system of counting the points varies in the different Unions. GOLF.

The object of this game is to place a small ball by means of a number of different clubs into each of 18 small holes four inches in diameter, with the minimum number of strokes. The position of the holes is generally marked by a small red flag. There is no regulation as to their distance from the tee—they may be 100, 300 or even 600 yards away. A separate ball is used for each player, or pair of players. Handicaps are devised to add to the difficulty of the game, as ‘ bunkers,’ long grass, etc. A various assortment of clubs is used—driver, niblick, mashie, cleek, putter, etc. The ball consists of an ingeniously made rubber core covered by a caoutchouc case painted white. Matches are played either singles or ‘ foursomes ‘ (I.e., a quartette playing two a side).

Clock Golf.

A simplified form of Golf for private lawns; the strokes confined to putting, so only one club (a ‘ putter’) is needed. It can be played by any number of persons. Metal figures are arranged clock-wise round a hole, and the player places his ball on each of the figures in turn, and endeavours to hole in as few strokes as possible. The hole should not be centred, but sunk at a spot that will give varying distances.

Putting Golf.

This game is practically identical with Clock Golf. It can be played on any level strip of lawn, and all that is needed, beside the ball and putters, is to have the ground marked off with a number of starting points at varying distances, from which to putt into the hole—of course, in the least number of strokes. Metal arrows for this purpose, similar to the clock figures in Clock Golf, can be obtained from the sports dealers.

HOCKEY.

This game is very similar to Association Football, the field being identical in size, and the general rules being much the same —one difference being that a goal can only be scored within an area of 25 yards from the goal mouth.

The game, which is popular with both sexes, is played with a small hard ball and hooked clubs. The game is always started by the peculiar formality of’ bullying off ‘ for first possession of the ball. A player may not touch or kick the ball when in play, and may not raise his club above the level of the shoulder.

LACROSSE.

Like Hockey, Lacrosse is played by sides. It is played with a club or racket about five feet long with the top bent in a hook like a bishop’s crozier or croix—hence the name. A thong is drawn from the tip and fastened to the shaft about 2 feet from the handle end, the space is filled in by loosely netted gut intended to hold the ball without retaining it. This crosse is held in both hands. The ball is made of rubber sponge weighing about 4A ounces and being about 8 to 8£ inches in circumference. The goals are situated from 100 to 150 yards apart; the posts are 6 feet high and 6 feet apart with a cross bar. A net is fixed to the top rail and sides and extends backwards behind the line between the posts Boundaries are arranged to suit each ground. Rubber-soled shoes only are worn, not spiked ones. The object of the game is to score a goal by sending the ball from the front by means of the crosse—it must not be propelled by hand, foot or leg. If accidentally put through the goal by a defending player, it counts as a goal to the opposite side.

LAWN TENNIS.

This game is played on a court 78 feet by 36 feet, divided by a net 3 feet 6 inches at the posts and 3 feet at the centre, with a light broad racquet, and balls of felt-covered rubber The server serves diagonally across the net to the opposite court; the striker-out returns, until one fails and loses a point Either player forfeits a point if the ball in play strikes any part of his person or if the ball be struck twice The striker out becomes the server at the end of a game. A set may be played by two or four players MOTORING.

The fortunate one who can afford to buy and keep a 20 car has the whole country-side at his feet. A small car, costing little in upkeep and low in tax, need never be at a loose end. If kept clean, periodically overhauled and decarbonised, and treated with the respect which is its due, a small car is a pleasant companion and a faithful friend.

NET BALL.

A game similar to Football and Hockey, popular amongst schoolgirls. Played with an Association football, the goal being a five-inch net, open at both ends, suspended from a horizontal ring on the end of a pole 10 feet from the ground. The object is to throw the ball into the net. The ball may be caught and held in any manner by head or hands, but may not be kicked. A player may not make a complete step whilst holding the ball, which must progress by a process of passing from player to player. The game is generally played by sides of seven each, but five or nine a side may play if desired.

POLO.

This game—practically hockey on horseback—is played with long-handled mallets by men mounted on ponies specially trained for the game. The ball is very light and made of willow root painted white—about 3 inches in diameter. It is played by only four a side. The most arduous position is that of player No. 4, who combines the functions of back and goalkeeper. The ponies average 14 hands 2 inches in height.

Water Polo is a similar game played in the water by swimmers, in teams of seven a side. The area of play is usually between 20 and 30 yards long and 20 yards wide. The ball should be from 26$ to 28 inches in circumference, and perfectly buoyant and waterproof. The goal posts, having the crossbar 3 feet above the water, should be 10 feet wide. The game is played in water not less than 3 feet deep, and lasts 14 minutes—7 minutes each way. Goals are scored by the ball passing completely between the goalposts and under the bar. The officials are a goal-scorer at either goal, a referee, and a timekeeper.

PUNTING.

See Rowing. PUTTING.

See Golf. QUOITS.

Played with steel, rubber or rope rings, the object being to throw them over a peg embedded in the ground or on to a series of hooks fixed to a board hung upon the wall When played upon the ground, the ring or giommet thrown nearest to the peg scores; in the case of the wall game, the one hanging on the centre hook takes the highest points.

RECORDS IN SPORT.

Cricket.

County Championships : 1027. Lancashire. 1928. Lancashire. 1929. Nottinghamshire. 1930. Lancashire. 1931. Yorkshire.

Football (Association).

International Championships : 1927. Scotland and England (a Tie). 1928. Wales. 1929. Scotland. 1930. England. 1931.

Cup Finals : 1927. Cardiff City beat

Arsenal. 1928. Blackburn Rovers beat

Huddersfield Town. 1929. Bolton Wanderers beat

Portsmouth. 1930. Arsenal beat Hudders- field Town. 1931. West Bromwich A. beat

Birmingham. (Rugby).

International Championships : 1927. Scotland and Ireland (a Tie). 1928. England. 1929. Scotland. 1930. England. 1931. Wales.

Champions: 1931 Mrs. Shepherd-Barron 1927. Swinton. and Miss Mudford. 1928. Swinton. 1929. Huddersfield. 1930. Huddersfield. 1931. Men’s :

Singles:

Golf.

Amateur : 1927. H. Cochet. 1927. Dr. W. Twedell. 1928. R. Lacoste. 1928. T. P. Perkins. 1929 H. Cochet. 1929. C. H. J. Tolley. 1930. W. T. Tilden. 1930. R. T. Jones (U.S.A.). 1931. S. B. Wood. 1931. E. Martin-Smith. Doubles:

Ladies’ : 1927. F. T. Hunter and 1927. Mdlle Simone Thion de W. T. Tilden. la Chaume. 1928. H. Cochet and 1928. Mdlle le Blan. J. Brugnon. 1929. Miss Joyce Wethered. 1929. W. Allison and 1930. Miss Diana Fishwick. J. Van Ryn. 1931. Miss Enid Wilson. 1930. W. Allison and J. Van Ryn. 1931. G. M. Lott and

Open : J. Van Ryn. 1927. R. T. Jones (U.S.A.). 1928. W. Hagen (U.S.A.). 1929. W. Hagcn (U.S.A.). 1930. R. T. Jones (U.S.A.). 1931. T. Armour (U.S.A.).

Racing.

Derby : 1927. Mr. F. Curzon’s Call Boy.

E. C. Elliott up. 1928. Sir H. Cunliffe-Owen’s Fel-

Professional : 1927. A. Compston. 1928. C. A. Whitcombe. 1929. A. Mitchell. 1930. C. A. Whitcombe. 1931. A. H. Padgham. stead. H Wragg up. 1929. Mr. W. Bainett’s Trigo.

J. Marshall up. 1930. H.H. Aga Khan’s Blenheim.

H. Wragg up. 1931. Mr. J. A. Dewar’s Camer- onian. F. Fox up.

Lawn Tennis.

Ladles’ :

Singles : 1927. Miss H. Wills. 1928. Miss H. Wills. 1929. Miss H. Wills. 1930. Mrs. Wills-Moody. 1931. Frln. C. Aussem.

Doubles : 1927. Misses H. Wills and

E. Ryan. 1928. Mrs H. Watson and

Miss P. Saunders. 1929. Mrs. H. Watson and

Mrs Mitchell. 1930. Mrs. Wills-Moody and

Miss Ryan.

Grand National : 1927. 1928. 1929. Sprig.

Tipperary Tim. Gregalach. 1930. Shaun Goilin. 1931. Grakle.

Oaks : 1927. Beam. 1928. 1929. 1930. 1931. Toboggan. Pennycomequick, Rose of England. Brulette. •

St. Leger : 1927. book Law. 1928. Fairway. 1029. Trigo. 1930. Singapore. 1931. Sandwich. 1000 Guineas : 1927. Cresta Run. 1928. Scuttle. 1929 Taj Man. 1930. Fair Isle. 1931. Pomme d’Api. 2000 Guineas : 1927. Adam’s Apple. 1928. Flamingo. 1929. Mr. Jinks. 1930 Diolite. 1931. Cameronian.

Rowing.

Oxford & Cambridge Boat Race. 1927. Cambridge took 20 m. 14 s.

Won by 3 lengths. 1928. Cambridge took 20 m. 25 s.

Won by 10 lengths 1929. Cambridge took 19 m. 24 s.

Won by 7 lengths. 1930. Cambridge took 19 m. 9 s.

Won bv 2 lengths. 1931. Cambridge took 19 m. 26 s.

Won by 2J lengths.

Shooting.

Bisley :

King’s Prize : 1927. Vernon, Capt., late R.A.M.C. (T). Score 292. 1928. Hale, L/Cpl., late K.E.S. (OT.C). Score 283. 1929. Blair, Lt.-Col., Seaforth

Highlanders (Canada). Score 1930. Foster, Miss Marjorie Elaine,

Women’s Legion. Sc. 1931. Fulton, Sergt., late Queen’s

Westminsters. Score 281.

ROUNDERS.

Played like Baseball, with at least five a side. A series of corners, or bases, are laid out; the pitcher throws the ball to the striker, who must drive it as far away as possible. He then endeavours to run round all the bases and return to the ‘ home ‘ before the ball can be fielded and thrown. If he is unable to reach the final base, he must negotiate as many as possible, whilst he or one of his side is being fielded. If the striker is hit by the ball when not in a base, or if a fielder catches the ball in the air when hit by him, he is out. Should the striker fail to hit three balls in succession, he is out. ROWING is the act of propelling a boat through water by means of oars. When rowing, sit in the centre of the boat. I’ix the stretcher, or footboard, so as to allow the legs to be nearly straight Place the hands on the handles of the oars, with the fingers on top and the thumbs beneath. Do not hold the oars tightly. Place the wrists so that the backs of the hands are in a straight line with the aims. Push the arms as far forward as possible, keeping the hands just level with the knees ; bend the body at the hips, keeping the shoulders loosely back. Next, lower the oars until just nicely covered by the water, and throw the body backwards by pressing the feet against the stretcher. Pull the hands towards the body and put all the strength into the leg pressure against the stretcher, bringing the elbows close to the sides. Next turn the blades, dropping the wrists as the oar is turned, and when just clear of the water, complete the turn till the blades are parallel with the stream. This is called ‘ feathering.’ There is no necessity to raise the oars high—on still water they need only skim the surface. The oar is brought back to its original position by straightening the arms, and moving the body to the upright. Always approach a bank at an angle. Come to rest at a landing stage against the stream whenever possible. Do not stand up in the boat when pushing off from the shore.

Punting consists of propelling a fiat-bottomed boat by forcing the vessel through the water with a long pole pressed against the bed of the stream. SKATING.— The art of balancing and propelling the person on a sheet of ice by means of sliding on steel runners screwed to the shoes. To sustain the weight of an average human body, the ice should be at least an inch to an inch and a half thick. The pastime should only be indulged in with the greatest caution when a thaw threatens. Roller Skating is an indoor modification of ice-skating, the steel runners being replaced by small carriages, with four ballbearing wheels, attached to the boots.

SKI-ING (pronounced ‘shee-ing’) is an allied sport wherein the exercise consists in negotiating the long snowclad slopes of mountains, and leaping intervening chasms, on huge skates, or snow-shoes, known as Skis, from eight to nine feet long. SWIMMING is the art of floating, and progressing through water without the aid of mechanical means. Ability to keep the head above water is the first essential, together with the gaining of confidence ; the science of aquatic progression being little else but the harmonious flexion and extension of arms and legs. Having learnt to float— —which, in most cases, is merely the act of lying fearlessly on the top of the water—essay a few strokes of arm and leg, and practice will do the rest. Three strokes are in favour with present-day swimmers : (I) The Breast Stroke, presenting a full breast to the water; the arms cutting a way through the water, so to speak, while the legs force the element behind like an oar. This is the usual beginners’ stroke, (ii) The Over-arm Stroke —cutting a way through the water, with the body turned till the shoulders are almost vertical, thus presenting less resistance to the water, (iii) The Crawl is a stroke much patronised by long distance swimmeis, and is an attempt to imitate the movements of a dog, or other animal, when swimming. Swimming should be learnt in still and shallow water ; sea swimming should not be attempted until some little experience has been gained. Beginners should never get out of their depths for fear of cramp. When a little experience has been obtained, a graceful dive should be learned.

WRESTLING consists in the endeavour of one antagonist to throw the other by grappling and heaving, or by leg, wrist or body hold. There are three styles of wrestling popular in England :

The Cumberland and Westmorland, which has for its chief characteristic the Back-hold and an endeavour to retain the perpendicular.

The Cornwall and Devon style, in which the wrestler must throw his opponent in such a way that both shoulders and one hip, or one shoulder and both hips, are on the ground simultaneously. Kicking is permitted in this style of wrestling.

The Lancashire ‘ Catch-as-Catch-Can,’ which permits of any hold whatsoever, except the stranglehold, in an endeavour to bear the antagonist’s shoulders to the ground. Scottish wrestling is a combination of the two North of England styles.

The Grseco-Roman system of wrestling—that generally used on the Continent—consists chiefly of struggles on the mat; tripping is not permitted under any circumstances.

Jiu-Jitsu, the Japanese form of wrestling, necessitates a careful study of the human anatomy, and endeavours to render the opponent helpless by attacking the most vulnerable spots. Jiu-jitsu makes use of many of the subtle tricks which under all the Occidental rules are regarded as very ‘ dirty play.’ Strength and physique not being necessary, it is an ideal means of self-defence.

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