Rubbing In

Rubbing in is the process of rubbing fats into flour or a flour mixture to obtain a ‘short’ texture. Generally, the fat is cut into small pieces and worked into the flour with the fingertips – this should be done as quickly as possible, keeping the mixture cool, as flour and fat mixtures do not benefit from too much handling.

Aromatic Roz bi Dfeen, made with beef, rice, chick-peas and spices, is a typical Middle Eastern dish.


A ruff is a wild shore bird of the sandpiper family, scolopacidae, found in northern Europe and Asia, which migrates to warmer climates in winter. At one time ruff was caught in vast numbers and cooked in the same way as WOODCOCK. It used to be particularly popular in the Midlands of Great Britain, but is rarely eaten today.


Rum is a spirit produced by distilling fermented molasses or dark treacle, which is the residue remaining when sugar is separated from the cane. Less prosaically, it is the drink of romantic men, of sailors and pirates and soldiers of fortune. The British Navy institutionalized it by giving a tot to all serving sailors every day, although this concession was withdrawn a few years ago!

Rum has, in fact, a relatively short history – being first recorded in print during the seventeenth century when it was rather unflatteringly called ‘kill-devil’. Apparently it did, because its popularity grew so that by the beginning of the eighteenth century it was being more gently described as a ‘pure and wholesome drink for punch’.

Rum is produced almost everywhere where sugar cane is grown but most exported rum comes from the islands of the West Indies. Almost all of the islands make their own distinctive variety but light rum, generally speaking, comes from the Spanish-speaking islands such as Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic while the darker ones are more common to Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad.

The lighter rums mix particularly well in cocktails such as DAIQUIRI while the darker ones are preferable for hot drinks such as GROG. Both light and dark rums are used extensively in cooking – for flambes, as the basis for dessert sauces, in cakes and mousses.

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