POPULAR ANNUALS GROWN FROM SEED EACH SEASON
Acroclinium. Hardj-annual. Malc?3 effective border plauts. The flowers may be dried and used for winter decoration. The plants flower six weeks after the seeds have been sown. Height 1-ft. -.4.ao7iBawhite and gold variety, while A. roseum bears rose and gold blooms.
Adonis A. aestivalis). A hardy annual with fine feathery foliage and red flowers. When well grown it is very charming, but it prefers light soil and a warm situation. Sow where it is to remain, and thin the plants to 6-in. Apart. Height 1-ft. A. aleppica is another charming species, but is sometimes difficult to cultivate.
Ageratum. Half-hardy annual suitable for bedding. Flowers freely over a long flowering period, sometimes lasting all through the summer. G row in any ordinary soil in a warm sunny spot. Height 6-in. Imperial Dwarf Blue is very dwarf and compact and suitable for edgings. Little Dorrit has blue and white flowers. Little Blue Star is a miniature variety with a profusion of small mauve flowers.
Alonsoa. Half-hardy annual with brilliant flowers suitable for the border. Sow in August or September for a display of bloom in April or May. Thin the seedlings to 9-in. Apart. If the plants are cut back immediately the flowers have faded another crop of flowers will be ensured. The scarlet A. tmrscewiczii is a favourite.
They can also be grown in pots, A. gracilis being particularly adaptable to indoor cultivation. Height 1-2 ft.
Alyssum. The most popular of the Alyssums is the sweet alyssum (.4. mari-limum). It is particularly appreciated for edging pathways and for growing as a carpet plant under taller annuals or herbaceous plants. The commonest form is white flowered, very florifevous, and lasts over a long period. Strictly speaking it is a perennial, but is always grown as an annual. It is best treated as a half-hardy annual.
Thousands of seedling plants are raised annually for market, and town gardeners unable to raise plants under glass can obtain the seedling plants cheaply enough to use generously in the garden. When the plants have flowered well, and seeds are forming, go over them with a pair of scissors and snip off all seed vessels. They will quickly flower a second time.
Apart from the white form there are now primrose-yellow and lilac forms which are useful in certain places, but which are un-likely to usurp the premier position which the white alyssum holds.
A more compact variety, A. minimum, ia also popular, but on the whole is not so valuable for general garden use as the sweet alyssum. The compact Little Dorritt variety is useful on rockeries to fill bare places.
Amaranthus. Half-hardy annuals with ornamental foliage suitable for greenhouse culture or for the beds or borders. The coloured leaves are very beautifully tinted. Plant out 12-in. Apart. Height 3-ft.
Anagallis (Pimpernel). Half-hardy annual with red or blue flowers in profusion. Can be grown throughout in the open if sown in April in a sunny position. Thin to 4-in. Apart. Height 6-in.
Androsace (A. coronopifolia). Hardy annual or biennial which prefers to be grown on the sunny rockery. With its blush-white flowers and rosette foliage this is very pretty. Height 6-in.
Antirrhinum (Snapdragon). Perennials grown as annuals. These will grow in any soil, and are very easy to cultivate. They may be sown in the autumn, and will stand the winter except in exposed places. They flower for a long period if the faded flowers are cut off regularly. They may also be grown in pots in the greenhouse, the seed being sown in August. When large enough transfer the seedlings to 5-in. Pots. They will bloom from March to May.
There are several types of antirrhinum, the tail varieties being suitable for cutting and exhibition, while the dwarf and intermediate types are more suitable for bedding. Good seed will come almost true to type, though occasionally there will be rogues of another colour among the seedlings.
Antirrhinums of special merit for garden use are:
Orange King Bright Pink Fire King Venus (rosy white) Cloth of Gold Whits. Queen INTEBMEDIATE:
Orange Glow Orange King Silver Pink Rosy Queen
Melrose (pink) Canary Yellow DWARF:
Crimson King Rose Queen Yellow Prince Copper Red While Queen Pale Apricot Arctotis. Perennials grown as annuals. The flowers vary from orange to blue-white, according to the species. These plants prefer a dry, sunny position, and are useful in the border, or as pot plants. Transplant to 9-in. Apart. Height 6-in. To 2-ft.
Aster, China. Annuals, best treated as half-hardy. Exceptionally good bedding plants. Seeds may be sown under glass in shallow pans or boxes. Thin from 1-2 in. apart in boxes. Handle them carefully when transplanting as seedlings bruised at the neck are very liable to damp off. They may also be sown in open ground in April. Height 1-2 ft.
The single asters are now great favourites for decorative classes at Flower Shows as well as for borders.
Good modern varieties of China asters are: Ostrich Plump., in distinct colours; white, rose, crimson, salmon, terra-cotta, etc.
Giant Comet, in similar colours, and in a dwarf variety.
Mammoth Branching, splendid for cut flowers.
Peony Flowered, with incurved petals, in all colours.
Marguerite Aster, single flowered, in all colours, also excellent for cutting.
Bartonia aurea. Hardy annuals, easy to grow in any soil. The deep rich gold flowers are like small yellow water lilies. Sow where they are to flower and thin to 12-in. Apart. Height 1 fc-ft.
Cacalia coccinea. The Scarlet Tassel Flower. Hardy annuals. Excellent for uso as cut flowers. Sow in boxes in February or March and prick out as soon as large enough to handle. Plant out into sunny beds or borders in May. Thin to 12-in. Apart, Height, ll-it.
Calandrinia. Hardy annual. Flowers four months after seed is sown. Thrives best in open sunny situations and on the rockery.
C. vmbellata is a hardy biennial, grown as an am.ual, and is of trailing habit. Height 6-in.
Calendula (Marigold). Hardy annuals. Will grow in any soil and will sow themselves if left undisturbed. The flowers are produced in a 11 shades of lemon and orange and are effective as cut flowers. Very suitable for growing in town gardens. Height li-ft. Orange King, Lemon Queen and Radio are the best of the modern strains.
Campanula. Hardy annual. Varieties may be grown with ease on the rock garden. Also useful for cultivation in the conservatory or house in pots or hanging baskets. The flowers are usually blue or blue-purple. C. Lorcyi is the one most generally used in this way. Height 1-ft.
Candytuft. Hardy annual. Very easily raised from seed, and one of the easiest to cultivate, but the season of flowering is short. The plants should be thinned to 9-in. Apart. This will ensure larger flowers. Very useful for cutting. Height 1-ft.
Carnation. The hybrid Marguerite carnations, sown early under glass in February or March, flower freely in the open ground six months later. If the weather is not too severe, they may grow on for another season.
They are excellent bedding and border plants, and fine for cutting.
When frosts arrive the can be lifted and potted for the greenhouse, where they will flower all through the winter and spring. Various colours; all exceedingly fragrant. Height 2-ft.
Centaurea. The popular blue cornflower is the best known among these, but there are other colours, all attractive, and splendid massed together. The plants pro-dvwe an abundance of bloom if well grown and last a long time. Petals fringed and feathery. Height 2-ft.
A good idea in growing blue cornflowers is to associate them with the calendulas. The colour contrast formed by alternating masses of blue and orange is decidedly striking.
Chrysanthemum. Several species are doors they flower all the summer. Will grown as annuals, chiefly C.coronarium and grow in any soil and are easy to culti- C.segetum. If they are grown in the green- vate. Suitable for autumn-sowing out house they will flower in early spring. Out- doors.
These make splendid cut flowers, but faded blooms must always be removed immediately to get the bestfrom the plants. Thin the plants to a foot apart. Height up to 3-ft. Colours, chiefly white, yellow, and chocolate-red.
Clarkia. Hardy annuals. Excellent border plants, and also grow well on rockeries and old walls. Make fine cut flowers. They are also grown in pots for use in the greenhouse. Height li-ft.
Cobcea scandens. Half-hardy perennial grown as an annual. Climbing habit. These may be grown in the greenhouse or in the open as desired. They bloom very soon after sowing the seed, and are extremely useful for covering walls, etc., in the new garden.
Collomia (coccinea). Hardy annual of compact habit. Produces a profusion of starry scarlet flowers. When transplanting thin to 6-in. Apart. Height 9-in.
Commelina (cceleslis). Half-hardy perennial grown as an annual. This plant has sky-blue flowers. It needs plenty of moisture. Height 2-ft.
Convolvulus. Hardy annuals. Naturally climbing plants and suitable for covering trellises, etc. Seeds may be sown in the open ground in early May. Most effective for covering the railings of balconies, etc. Plants raised in beat for this purpose should be transplanted to tubs of rich soil during May.
Coreopsis. Hardy annuals. Can be easily cultivated and need very little attention. Very valuable as cut flowers. They thrive best in half-shaded positions. The colours are restricted to yellow and brown, but they are quite attractive. The dwarf varieties are suitable as bedding plants, but the taller kinds are more suited to the borders. The height varies from 9-in. To 3-ft. In catalogues the annual varieties are usually listed as Calliopsis.
Cosmos. Greenhouse annual. Also very suitable for beds and borders. Can be sown in the open ground in May or in gentle heat in March or April, for planting out in May. Make dainty cut flowers. Height 2-3 ft.
Cyno glossum. Hardy annual. Produces blue flowers similar to those of the forget-me-not. Early flowering and suitable for borders. Height 18-in.
Datura. Half-hardy annuals, with large trumpet-shaped flowers, which can be grown in pots in the greenhouse or in the open ground. Commonly known as Angels Trumpets. Height 3-ft.
Delphinium (Larkspur). Hardy annual of tall, branching habit. Although quite hardy, they are best if grown under glass and bedded out, placing them 12-in. Apart. These flowers are now grown in a variety of colours and are excellent as cut flowers. The dwarf varieties are very charming as border plants, these attaining a height of only 1-ft.
The seeds can be sown in the autumn, when they will flower in the following summer.
The taller varieties reach a height of 3ft.
Dianthus Heddewigii. Half-hardy biennials grown as annuals. Very suitable for bedding plants. They have a long period of flowering, continuing through the entire summer. Height 6-9 in.
Diascia Barberse. Half-hardy annual. This plant bears coral-pink flowers which are similar in shape to the Nemesias. It is a useful dwarf border plant and can also be grown as a pot plant in the greenhouse. When planted into the border they should be set 6-in. Apart. Height 9-in.
Dimorphotheca. Hardy annual. Sow in the open ground in April and under favourable conditions flowers will appear in early June. It likes plenty of sun, and will grow in any ordinary garden soil, though light, warm soil is best. It is very suitable for a bedding plant, and also grows well in the greenhouse. The colours range from
Mar ay annuals wnica Have Dcen greatly improved or recent years, both In slzo und colour.
All tints of orange to apricot and lemon. Best if grown in pots in the greenhouse.
Height to 2-ft. It is commonly known as the Blue Lace Didiscus Cceruleus. Although this Flower, and makes fine cut flowers for plant is classed as a hardy annual it thrives house decoration. Although the colour of ANNUALS
ANNUALS the flowers is more appreciated when grown under glass, these plants also make good bedding and border plants.
Sow under glass in March, transplanting the seedlings to 2-in. Apart in boxes in April and plant into the beds in May.
Echium plantagineum. Hardy annual. These are extremely useful when grown as border plants, with their blue flowers which are tinted with rose colour in the early stages. Grown in the open they flower in summer. They are also charming when grown in the greenhouse where they flower in spring. Height to 2-ft.
Erysimum. Hardy biennials grown as annuals. Will grow well on rockeries, small beds or in the border. Often known as wallflowers. Most of the species are of compact habit and flower in early summer. Height to 18-in. Colour, yellow.
Eschscholtzia (Californian poppy). Extremely hardy annuals. They can be sown at almost any time of the year, in spring for flowers in summer; in summer for flowers in autumn; and in autumn for flowers in spring. They are equally attractive in the border, in groups or lines or in clumps, and are very charming as cut flowers. If the flowers are to be used for indoor decoration they should be cut while still in bud, when they will afford much pleasure. Height to 2-ft.
One variety, Miniature Primrose, which is only 4 – 6 in. in height, is very pretty grown in the rock garden.
Felicia Bergeriana. Hardy annual. Commcnly called the Kingfisher Daisy. The seeds may be sown in April in the open where they are intended to flower. They are of dwarf habit, having mossy foliage, and the blue flowers are poised on 6-in. Stems quite distinct from the foliage.
Flax (Linum). Hardy annual which is a free grower. Valuable as edgings to bods. Seeds may be sown in the open ground in March or April. The dainty flowers are of blue or scarlet. Height 15-in.
The flax flowers are among those which open only in the sunshine. An effective way to edge a long border is to use white alys-sum at the edge, with a line of scarlet flax behind. Whon the flax is not open the alyssum makes a good enough edging, and in full sun the effect is striking.
Godetla. Hardy annuals. These plants proJuco flowers outdoors in the summer which are excellent for cutting, or they can be grown under glass when they will produce their blooms in spring. The taller kinds make very good border plants when grown in the background of dwarf or plants. Height to 2-ft.
Godetia Sweetheart, with double pink flowers, is one of the best of modern varieties.
Gypsophila. Hardy annual. Is largely grown for use with cut flowers and in this way it is excellent. The plants bear sprays of tiny white or red flowers, and mingle well with bouquets of other cut flowera. There are also dwarf varieties which may be grown quite well on the rockery. Height from 9-in. To 3-ft.
Hebenstreltia comosa. Half-hardy annual. This plant bears a profusion of small white flowera grown on spikes somewhat resembling mignonette. If sown under glass it may be planted outdoors with safety in April. The flowers are fragrant in the evening. Height 18-in.
Helichrysum (Everlasting Flowers). Hardy annuals. They are very easy to raise and are free flowering. While they are very charming when grown in the garden during the summer, they are largely grown for winter decoration. For preserving these flowers they should be cut when partly expanded, tied in bunches, and hung head downwards in a cool dry place. Height from l£-2£ ft.
Heliophlla. These plants, with tiny blue flowers of great beauty, grow well in the open if treated as half-hardy annuals, but they are seen to advantage when grown in pots in the greenhouse. Sow the seeds in mid-April and then thin out to 9-in. Apart. Tf grown in pots sow in March or April, allowing 3 to 5 plants in a 5-in. Pot.. and they will flower during the summer. Height H-ft.
Hollyhock (Althaea). A hardy perennial often grown as an annual. If sown in January or February they will bloom the same season. This plant is subject to a disease which has proved troublesome – Puccinea malvaccarum. The best method of checking this is to spray the young plants once in three weeks with a weak solution of liver of sulphur, allowing one ounce to a gallon of soft water. This disease is noted by the brownish-yellow spots which appear on the underside of the leaves. Height to over 6-ffc.
It used to be the practice to always increase hollyhocks by cuttings, particu larly in the case of double-flowered holly hocks. Years of solection have now made it possible for double flowers to be grown from seed with very little variation from the type in the seedlings. As seedling plants are always stronger and are not usualy subject to the hollyhock disease, this practice is recommended. Some of the best strains are as follows: Golden Beauty Crimson King White Queen Prince of Orange American Fringed Rose Queen Humulus japonicus ( Annual Hop ). This plant is a rapid grower and is valuable for covering trellises, etc. The variety japonicus variegatus has leaves with silver and creamy-white markings. Easily raised from seed sown under glass or in the open. Height 10-ft.
Ionopsidium acaule ( Violet Cress ). Hardy annual which is much valued for the rockery. It can also be grown well in the borders. It is of dwarf habit and has a long flowering period. The flowers resemble pincushions studded with violet-headed pins, and are really very beautiful. Height 3-ffc.
Perhaps the best situation for these plants is in the crevices between bricks of old paths, where it can be sown mixed with a little light soil and left to take care of itself.
Ipomoea. Half-hardy annuals (varieties of the climbing convolvulus). Greenhouse orgardon climbers. These make a fine back-ground to the annual borders. Sow in heat in March, harden off in May and plant out in June. . Rubro-conrulea ( Heavenly Blue ) is particularly attractive.
Jacobaea. Hardy annuals. Very easy to cultivate and they have a long period of flowering, the flowers being produced in sprays somewhat like cinerarias. Excellent for indoor decoration and also used largely for bouquets, etc. Sow the seeds in April in the position where they are to grow and thin the seedlings 3-6 in. apart when 1-in. High. They may also be grown in pots in the greenhouse. Height to 2-ft.
Kochla tricophylla. Hardy annual, generally known as Burning Bush or Summer Cypress. The finely-cut foliage is of a pale green, which changes to rich crimson in the- autumn. Makes an excellent bedding plant and is useful in the border. Can also be grown in pots in the greenhouse. Sow under glass in March, and plant out in June, setting the plants 2-ft. Apart each way. Height 2-3 ft.
Lavatera. Hardy annuals. Popularly known as Mallows. Very suitable for tall borders and beds. As transplanting is often fatal, the seeds should be sown in the position where they are to flower. Height 8-ft. The colour is usually pink or rose.
Leptosiphon. Free-flowering hardy annuals. Although used largely in the rock garden, these plants make admirable edging plants. They are of dwarf habit and bear a profusion of various-coloured flowers. Sow in April where they are to flower, and thin in May to 3-in. Apart. Height 3-9 in.
Limnanthes Douglasii. Hardy annual. A free-flowering plant suitable for the spring border. Sow in September. For summer flowering sow in April. Its yellow and white flowers are very fragrant and much sought after by honey bees. Height G-in.
Linaria. Hardy perennials grown as annuals. Also hardy annuals. Excellent for growing on the rockery and in baskets, and they can also be grown in the annual border. They resemble the antirrhinum. Sow in April for summer flowering and in August for spring blooms. Height 1-ft.
Lobelia. Hardy and half-hardy perennials. These plants are largely grown for edgings butcan effectively be grown in beds. Although these plants are truly perennials, the compact spreading and the tall varieties are best grown as annuals. There are dwarf varieties and these can be easily raised from seed. The taller varieties can also be effectively grown in pots. Height from 0-in. To 1-ft.
Lupin. Hardy annuals. These plants are very free-flowering and are invaluable in the mixed border or for indoor decoration. Many varieties are scented. In a wet season they will flower in great profusion. Sow the seeds in April and thin in May, 6-12 in. apart. Height to 3-ft.
Some well-known varieties are: -
L. Harlwcjii, blue and white flowers.
L. hybridus atrococcineu-s, pink flowers with white flowers.
L. menziesii, brilliant yellow.
L. mukibilis, blue and pink.
Malope. Hardy annual. Very showy. Sow the seeds in April or May in their flowering position. It needs plenty of water in dry weather. Flowers are mostly red and white. Height 2-ft.
Marigold. Half-hardy annuals. Excellent in the border, as they flower in the autumn, when other annuals have sometimes finished. The flowers are also beautiful as cut flowers. Although half-hardy annuals, and best raised under glass, they may also be sown directly into the open ground at the end of April or in May. A few good varieties are.
French Marigold (Double). Queen of Dwarfs, brown and yellow. (Single.) Silver King, silvery yellow, marked maroon; Fire King, bronze scarlet.
African Marigold (Double). Dwarf Orange, Dwarf Lemon, Guinea gold. (Single.) Orange Beauty. French Marigolds are from 9-in. To 2 ft. in height, African Marigolds up to 2£-ft.
See CALENDULA, for Pot Marigolds. Martynia fragrans. Half-hardy annual. It bears mauve flowers, which are sweetly scented. Sow the seeds in heat in February or March and transplant to 8-12 in. apart in June. It can be grown in pots, and gives grace to the greenhouse. Height 2-ft.
Mathiola bicornls (Night-scentod Stock). Hardy annuals. These plants are suited to beds and borders, where their fragrance is very noticeable in the evenings. Sow the seeds in April in the position where thoy are intended to flower. Height 1 ft.
Mathiola imana annua (Ten-week Stock). Half-hardy annuals. Sow in March in a slight heat, and transplant to the open in May, or the seedlings may be sown in the cold frame in April, transplanting in June, setting the plants from 9 to 15 in. apart each way. They may also be cultivated in pots in the greenhouse.
Mignonette. Hardy annual. This plant is very sweetly perfumed, and gires a charming effect when used for indoor decoration. Although on cold, heavy clay soils it is difficult to cultivate, it will grow pretty freely elsewhere. Sow thinly in boxes in April and place in the greenhouse or cold frame. When the seedlings are about 2 to 3 in. high they may be planted into their flowering position. Height 1 ft.
Nasturtium. Hardy annuals. These are classed under two heads, I.o. The dwarf or Tom Thumb varieties, and the climbing varieties. Both are very useful when cultivated as border plants, the former in the front of the border and the latter in the background. Sow in spring or autumn and give them plenty of water during growth. Height of dwarf varieties, 1 ft.
Nemcsia. Half-hardy annuals of very varied colouring. Very popular as bedding plants. They can be brought into flower at almost any time of the year, although they mostly bloom in spring. They can, however, be sown under glass, planting out in June or July. In the greenhouse they may be brought into flower at Christmas-time. Height 9 to 18 in.
Nemophila. Hardy annuals of dwarf habit. Blue, white or purple. Extremely easy to cultivate, and make good edging plants. Sow in spring for rammer flowering. These plants, when grown in pots in the greenhouse, give a charming effect. Height 6 in.
Nicotiana (Tobacco Plant). Half-hardy annuals. Although these plants may be grown in the open border, they thrive best in the greenhouse. They are sweetly scented, particularly in tke evening, and have ornamental foliage. Sow in March or April and water freely. Their flowers are mainly white and rose. Height 2 to 6 ft.
A miniature-flowered variety, excellent for pots, which remains open all day, is now obtainable.
Nigella. Hardy annuals. Commonly called Love-in-a-mist. Sow in the autumn for a profusion of flowers the following summer. They have a long flowering period. Height 18 in. Miss Jekyll and Blue Ensign are favourite varieties.
Nycteriana. Half-hardy annual of dwarf habit and sweetly scented in the evenings. Flowers pale blue and white. Height only 3 in. (Enothera (The Evening Primrose). Hardy annuals. Seeds may be sown where they are to flower or in a slight heat in April, transplanting the seedlings in May. Thin seedlings to 6 in. apart in June. While most varieties are grown a3 border plants, there are some which can easily be cultivated in the rock garden. Height 6 in. to 1 ft. Flowers large and yellow.
Omphalodes. Hardy annuals. Grown as bedding or border plants. They have ornamental foliage, the leaves being silver, and the flowers are silvery-white. They can also be grown on the rockery, where they are easily cultivated. They need to be sown in masses, in partially shady spots where they are to flower. Height 9 in.
Oxalis. Hardy annuals largely grown in the rock garden, and sometimes in the border. Sow in spring in slight heat. Height 1 ft. Cloth of Gold is a delightful variety which can be highly recommended.
Pentstemon. Hardy perennials grown as half-hardy annuals. Sown in January and February, they flower in the beds in August or September. If sown in the cold frame in late summer and allowed to winter there, they will flower earlier. They have a long flowering period and will stand a good deal of unfavourable weather. They are also excellent as cut flowers. Height 2 ft.
Papaver (Poppy). Annuals. A host of bright colours can be obtained by the use of Poppies in the border, and although they are rather delicate the flowers will last for a considerable time. When cutting for indoor decoration it is best to cut while still in bud. Sow in spring and thin the seedlings to 12 in. apart. Sow where they are to flower, as transplanting is often fatal. Height 2 ft.
A few well-known varieties are: Shirley Poppies, particularly Shirley Orange King and Shirley Picoke. White flowered with carmine picotco edges.
Dioarf Japanese Pompone. Double flowers, various colours.
Iiyburgh Hybrids. Double, waved petals, bright colours.
Umbrosum. Dwarf habit, bright crimson, spotted black.
Mexican Poppy (Hunnemannia). Yellow, with golden anthers.
Petunia. Half-hardy annual. The bedding class of Petunia is best suited to be grown in the open ground, where they like a dry, sunny position. The large-flowered varieties, single and double, are best grown in the greenhouse. These are in all shades of crimson and violet, blotched with yellow and white.
The dwarf compact variety, which grows to a height of 8 or 9 in., is excellent for making ribbon borders, etc. Some varieties also make good decorations when grown in window-boxes. Sow under glass and transplant to the open at the end of May for the best results. Height up to 2 ft.
Phacelia. Hardy annual. Very early flowering and has a long period of blooming. The flowers are bell-shaped and are mostly blue and mauve. These plants will flower six weeks after sowing. In warm districts they can be sown in the autumn and will live through the winter outdoors, and give earlier blooms and stronger plants. Height to 18-in.
Phlox Drummondii. Half-hardy annuals. Very suitable as bedding plant3, especially when the various colours are mixed together.
The dwarf class, which grows only to a height of 4 – (5 in., makes excellent rockery plants, and will give brilliant effects in late summer and autumn. These plants will stand a few degrees of frost in congenial soil, and will often flower after a frost on a sunny day in early winter. If the seed p d? Are picked off when they appear the plants will flower for quite a long time. They grow best in a partially shaded, moist spot. Height to lS-in.
Platystemon Californicus. Hardy annual, of dwarf habit. Its flowers are bright lemon colour and are frequently called Cream Cups. They resemble very closely the poppy family. Height I-ft.
Rudbeckia. Hardy annual. The flowers, which are rich yellow with bronze rod markings, are very charming as cut flowers. They flower in late autumn, and the pro-fusion of flowers is very useful when most of the annuals have finished. Height l£-4 ft.
Salpiglossis. Half hardy annual. Although this is best grown in the greenhouse it can, if planted in sheltered spots, be cultivated in the open beds and borders. A bed of the various colours is very charming, but it is wise to see that the colours harmonize. They are also excellent as cut flowers.
For outdoor culture, seed should be sown in March. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them off into boxes. Keep close to the glass in a cold frame. Then pot into 3-J-in. Pots and place in gentle heat, shaded from direct sunshine. Harden off and plant out in June. Height 2-ft.
Salvia (Clary). Half-hardy perennial often grown as a hardy annual. Sow in March in the cool greenhouse, or in the open ground. They are very satisfactory if grown in clumps or beds in old-fashioned gardens. Height 2-ft. The purple or pink bracts of these plants are delightful in a mixed annual border, and form the plants chief attraction. If allowed, they seed themselves freoly.
Sand Verbena (Abronia umbcllata). A perennial, generally grown as a hardy annual. It is of trailing habit and is easily cultivated in the rock garden. It closely resembles the Verbena. The flowers are rose coloured.
Sanvitalia procumbens. Hardy annual. Very suitable for beds and borders. It is also easily cultivated on the rockery, its yellow flowors giving an air of freshness. Height 6-in.
Scabious (Sweet Scabious). Really a biennial, but grown as an annual. Sow in March and transplant in May and the plants will flower early and freely. For later blooms the seeds can be sown in April in the position where they are to bloom. Thoy are grown in a variety of colours and make very charming cut flowers. They can also be grown in the greenhouse. Height 3-ft.
Schizopetalon Walkeri. Hardy annual which is very fragrant, especially in the evening. The flowers are white, and the petals, which grow crosswise, add special attraction to the plant. They make useful border plants. Height 9-in.
Shortia Californica. Hardy annual, vory suitable and attractive as an edging plant. The plants produce a profusion of small daisy-liko flowers of a gold tint. Cive the plants plenty of water in dry weather. Height 9-in.
Silene. Hardy annuals, producing a profusion of all shades of mauve and pink flowers in early spring. They are quite suitable for bedding plants, for the border and for the rockery; in fact, they will grow almost anywhere. Height 1-ft.
Statice (Sea Lavender). Hardy annuals, generally grown for indoor decoration. They have a long flowering period and are valuable as border plants. They can be dried and used for house decoration in Avinter, and contrast well with Holichry-sums. Height 1-ft.
Sunflower (Hehanthus). Hardy annual. These plants make a fine background to the border and are also most useful as cut flowers. Their colour varies from pale yellow to the deepest orange. They have a long period of flowering, commencing in spring and continuing till early autumn. Height to 10-ft.
Swan River Daisy (Brachycome). Half-hardy annuals. These make excellent bedding plants, the flowers being somewhat similar to Cinerarias. They can also be grown in pots in the greenhouse. Height 6-in.
Sweet Peas (Lathyrus odoralus). Hardy annuals. These well-known flowers make a dainty background to the border and are also charming used as cut flowers. They are very fragrant, and their popularity justifies the title Queen of Annuals.
Sow the seeds either in autumn or spring, hi boxes or pots, or in March in the open ground where the plants are to bloom. Sow each scod singly, half an inch deep, using a pencil, or stick, to make the holes. Allow half a dozen seeds to a o-in. Pot, or if a box is used set the seeds 2-in. Apart.
The soil in which the seeds are sown should be porous, to allow for drainage. This can be ensured by the addition of sand. Equal parts of loam, decayed leaves, and sand mixed and passed through a half-inch mesh sieve, is ideal for seed sowing. Holes in the bottom of the pots should be covered with crocks placed concave side down. This will ensure good drainage.
After the seeds are sown they should be watered and placed in the cold frame. If this is not available, a piece of glass over the pots will suffice. The lights should not be removed until the seedlings appear, but the glass over the pots may occasionally be wiped to get rid of moisture that will collect. Later, the fights of the cold frame may be left off except when the weather is exceptionally wet or severe.
Before planting the seedlings into the open ground, the soil should be deeply dug and manured. Poultry manure is excellent for Sweet Peas, and this should be mixed with nine to twelve in. of soil in the bottom of a trench about 18 in. deep. If poultry manure is not available, however, any old garden refuse will serve the same purpose.
Thoroughly dig and manure the ground early in the winter if possible, leaving the trench open for a time to weather the subsoil. Seedlings will be ready to be planted into the open about April. As these plants are of clinging habit they will need some support and this is best supplied at first by short twiggy stems. These should be placed on the side of each row and the plants will naturally cling and climb over them.
Tall stakes may be conveniently placed in position at the time of planting out the seedlings. This will serve a double purpose, as it will help to break strong winds and keep out a few degrees of frost.
When transplanting the seedlings they should be set 8 in. apart if they are for ordinary garden decoration, but for exhibition plants the distance will be greater. Pinch the centre tip from each plant when about 4 pairs of leaves have formed to encourage side shoots.
When growing for exhibition, only one or two stems should be allowed to develop to each plant, as the blooms will be much larger than if more shoots are allowed.
Sweet Peas are often attacked by pests, the chief being slugs, mice, birds and green-fly. The method for treating each is as follows:
Place a good layer of ashes on the soil surface round the plants. The slugs will then be kopt at bay. This should be renewed after heavy rain.
To prevent attacks by mice the best thing to do is to soak the Beeds in paraffin and dust red lead over them before sowing. The seeds will then be untouched.
Stretch a few strands of black cotton across the rows a few inches above the seedlings, and the birds will soon leave them alone.
If the plants are attacked by greenfly the best method is to syringe frequently with a good insecticide.
Some of the best varieties of Sweet Peas for general purposes are: Constance Hinlon, white.
Reflection, pale amethysfc-b!ue.
Mrs. A. Scarlcs, rich pink.
Picture, deep cream-pink, What Joy, deep cream.
Pinkie, rose pink.
Magnet, salmon pink.
Youth, white, edged rose.
Royal Sovereign, orange.
Sweet William. Hardy Biennials. These are invaluable as bedding plants, although they can also be grown in the border, and are often a useful addition to the rock garden. They are obtainable in a variety of colours, all very effective.
They have a fairly long period of flowering, commencing in early summer. The Annual Sweet William has been obtained by hybridizing the Sweet William and the Annual Dianthus. Height 6-9 in.
Ursinia. Half-hardy annual. These are fine bedding plants and also splendid as cut flowers. They have light, feathery foliage and a profusion of orange-yellow flowers which are quite distinct from the foliage. When used as cut flowers the blooms last quit-e a long time. These plants are easy to cultivate, and if sown outdoors in April they will bloom in June and last until late autumn. For a suc-cession of bloom cut off all faded flowers as they appear. Height 1- ft.
Vcnidium Fatuosum. Hardy annuals best treated as bedding plants. They are strong growers and need plenty of room. The main stem should be pegged down in order to allow the side shoots to develop. They are excellent as cut flowers and last a long time. The flowers are orange coloured with a darker blotch. Sow first week in May. Height 3-ft.
Verbena. Half-hardy perennials grown as annuals. Very suitable for summer bedding; they can also be grown in the border and in clumps, besides being cultivated in pots in the cool greenhouse. They can be grown in a variety of colour, or in separate tints.
Sow in boxes and prick off into pots, gradually hardening the seedlings for planting out. They can also be pricked out into a nursery bed, planting out permanently as they become ready. Height 1-ft.
Virginian Stock. Hardy annual. Most suitable when grown in the annual border, although it is sometimes grown in beds. The flowers are produced in a variety of colours and are very effective. Height 9-in.
Viscaria. Hardy annual. Grown mostly in clumps in the border. It flowers freely, and is very easy to cultivate. The dwarf varieties may also be grown in pots in the greenhouse. The flowers are mostly red, white and blue. Height to 1-ft.
Xeranthemum. Hardy annual. Very easy to cultivate and largely grown as everlasting flowers, to be dried and used for winter decoration. They are obtainable in a variety of colours. Height to 2-ft.
Zinnia. Half-hardy annuals. Bedding and border plants. When massed togetho r in a variety of colours these plants are very effective. They have a long flowering period, and make fine cut flowers. Height 2-ft. When raising these under glass, ha very careful not to Water the foliage to excess. They easily fall victims to damping off disease if carelessly watered.