Whenever operations are needed, the problem of pain arises. The anaesthesiologist is specialized in all methods of painkilling, but he also manages and supervises breathing functions and blood circulation during operations.
A paediatrician deals with the special problems of childhood. The geriatrician specializes in the care of the old.
There are specialists in the diseases of the eye who also do eye operations. The otolaryngologist specializes in the field of ear, nose and throat problems, and also operates in these areas.
There are many specialisms, and increasingly more superspecialisms. As knowledge in medicine grows, there is a rising need for further specialization. This is a double-edged sword, however. It might be said that specialists deal exclusively with organs, parts of organs or diseases of some organs. The whole human being, with his own particular worries, emotions and way of life may be lost from sight. It is therefore particularly important that the general practitioner acts as an integrative force and views the patient as a complete human being in his own surroundings who can be ill, and not just as someone who has a kidney complaint or a sore throat.