Marmalade

Traditionally served at breakfast in Britain, marmalade is a preserve generally made with citrus fruit. The name marmalade is derived from the Portuguese name for quince preserve, marmalada. Marmalade can be made with oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit and tangerines. There are also mixed fruit combinations and, in some cases, other fruit, such as pineapples, pears and apples, are added. Ginger and orange is a well-known combination.

The best time of year to make mar-malade is in January and early February when all citrus fruit are at their best and the bitter Seville oranges have their short season.

The most popular marmalade is made from Sevillcs. Sweet oranges are some-times used in marmalades, mixed with other citrus fruit, but their skins tend to cloud the jelly.

Marmalade is made in the same way as JAM with one difference – because the peel of citrus fruit is tough, it has to be softened either by prolonged soaking and cooking or just prolonged cooking. According to one theory, soaking the fruit from 12 to 24 hours before boiling is essential. Soaking makes the fruit swell, so that the pectin is more easily released and the peel softened. The other theory is that soaking is not necessary and that the long initial boiling, before the sugar is added, is sufficient.

To make successful marmalade, remember that the pips and the pith (when it is separated from the rind) contain most of the pectin. They must be cooked with the fruit pulp, and removed and discarded before the sugar is added.

The amount of sugar given in all the following recipes is considered the best for yield, keeping quality and taste, but if you prefer a more bitter marmalade it is possible to reduce the sugar by one-quarter and even by one-half. We suggest you experiment to find the flavour you like the best.

The amount of water required varies according to the juiciness of the fruit and the pan used. If a preserving pan is used, a larger amount of water is necessary as evaporation is greater. If a straight-sided saucepan is used, a lesser amount of water will be sufficient.

The quickest and most modern method of making marmalade is to make it in a pressure cooker. All pressure cookers give detailed instructions for making marmalade.

There are two types of marmalade: thick marmalade and jelly marmalade.

THICK MARMALADE

Method

Scrub the fruit. Cut them in half and squeeze out the juice. Strain the juice into a preserving pan. Put the pips and any coarse tissue in a muslin or cheesecloth bag. Chop the peel, including the pith, either coarsely or finely. Add the peel, bag of pips, acid (lemon juice or citric or tartaric acid) and the water to the juice in the pan and simmer over moderate heat for 2 hours or until the peel is tender.

Remove the bag of pips, squeeze it and then discard. Reduce the heat to low and add the specified amount of sugar to the pan. Stir to dissolve it. When the sugar has dissolved, increase the heat to moderately high and boil rapidly until setting point is reached.

Remove the pan from the heat. Remove the scum. Let the marmalade cool a little (this prevents the peel from settling in the bottom of the jars) until a skin forms on top and then ladle it into heated, dry jars. Cover the tops of the marmalade immediately with waxed paper discs. When the marmalade is completely cool, seal with jam covers and tie with string or elastic bands. Method

Scrub and peel the fruit. Separate the pith from the rind. Shred the rind. Put the rind, acid and half the water in a pan and simmer over moderate heat for 2 hours, or until the rind is tender.

Cut up the fruit pulp and cook it with the pith in the remaining water for 2 hours. Drain in a colander. Remove and discard the pips, coarse tissue and pith or, if you want a very thick marmalade, press the pulp through a fine strainer.

Add the pulp to the rind. Add the specified amount of sugar and finish cooking as in Method 1. Method

Scrub the fruit and put them whole into the pan with the water. Simmer for 2 hours or until the fruit can be pierced easily with a knitting needle.

Lift out the fruit and chop it coarsely. Remove the pips, put them in a muslin or cheesecloth bag and return them to the pan. Boil the liquid and pips for 15 minutes. Remove and discard the bag of pips after squeezing. Add the chopped fruit to the pan. Add the specified amount of sugar and finish as in Method 1.

JELLY MARMALADE

Scrub and peel the fruit. Cut away the pith. Shred the rind and put it into a muslin or cheesecloth bag. Chop the fruit pulp and put it in a pan with the pith, the shredded rind in a bag, the acid and the water. Simmer for 2 hours.

Remove the muslin or cheesecloth bag. Open it and remove and rinse the shredded rind in cold water. Drain. Set aside in a covered bowl.

Pour the contents of the pan through a jelly bag placed over a large bowl and allow it to drip through overnight.

Measure the liquid and allow 1 pound of sugar to every pint . Put the liquid, sugar and shredded rind in the pan and finish as in Method 1.

SEVILLE ORANGE MARMALADE

Use

3 pounds of Seville oranges, the juice of

2 lemons (or

1 teaspoon citric or tartaric acid),

4 to

6 pints ofwater and

6 pounds of sugar. The yield will be about

10 pounds. Use either Method 1, 2 or 3.

DARK SEVILLE MARMALADE

Use

3 pounds of Seville oranges, the juice of

2 lemons (or

1 teaspoon citric or tartaric acid),

4 to

6 pints ofwater and

6 pounds of brown sugar. Use either Method

1,

2 or

3.

SEVILLE JELLY MARMALADE

Use

4 pounds of Seville oranges, the juice of

2 lemons (or

1 teaspoon citric or tartaric acid),

5 to

7 pints ofwater and as much sugar as is required. Use the method for Jelly

Marmalade.

Marmalade Bars

These rich biscuits are filled with chunky dark marmalade to give an unusual flavour. Serve as a coffee or teatime snack.

ABOUT

15 BARS

6 oz. plus

1 teaspoon butter

5 oz. rolled oats

5 oz. flour, sifted

3 oz. soft brown sugar

½ teaspoon mixed spice or ground allspice

2 teaspoon ground cardamom

6 tablespoons thick dark orange marmalade

Preheat the oven to moderate 350°F (Gas Mark 4, 180°C). Using the teaspoon of butter, lightly grease an 8-inch square baking tin. Set aside.

In a large mixing bowl, combine the rolled oats, flour, sugar, mixed spice or allspice and cardamom. Add the remaining butter and cut it into small pieces with a table knife. With your fingertips rub the butter into the flour mixture until it resembles coarse breadcrumbs.

Divide the mixture in half and press one half into the bottom of the baking tin. Using a flat-bladed knife, generously spread the marmalade evenly over the mixture. Top with the remaining mixture, smoothing it evenly over the marmalade with a flat-bladed knife.

Place the baking tin in the centre of the Rich, moist Marmalade Chocolate Cake and crunchy Marmalade Bars are flavoured with orange marmalade. oven and bake the mixture for 35 to 40 minutes, or until it is lightly browned on top.

Remove the tin from the oven and, with a sharp knife, cut the mixture into bars. Set aside to cool, in the tin, so that the bars may harden and set. Serve cold.

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