Loosening Stubborn Screws

Apply paraffin or lubricating oil and let it work in. Or apply a screwdriver and hit the end with a mallet, to drive the screw in a tiny fraction of an inch farther. Or apply a red-hot iron to the head, to expand the metal of the screw.

Woodwork, Staining. The staining of floors can be done with a solution of permanganate of potash dissolved in water. The solution, though purple, produces a brown stain. The stronger the solution, the deeper will be the shade.

Test on an odd piece of wood, and get the shade right by adding more water or permanganate, as the case may be. This stain dries dull, and must be followed by varnishing or bees-waxing. Before applying varnish, give the wood a coat of size, or rub it over with linseed oil, to check absorption.

Where black is not objected to, the surrounds of floors may be sized and then painted over with japan black, thinned with turpentine. The japan dries with a more or less glossy surface, and does not require varnishing.

When finished woodwork, such as that of cabinets and furniture, is in question, the wood must be carefully prepared by scraping or sand-papering, as on this depends largely the success of staining.

Nail-holes and dents or depressions must be filled in with a stopping of plaster-of-paris and whiting, allowed to set hard and then rubbed down smooth. To pre- vent any end-grain surfaces appearing much darker than the side-grain, they should be rendered less absorbent by applying oil or size. Local treatment may also be needed on and round knots showing in the side-grain.

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