LILY PONDS would allow for a larger number of lilies, which should not be planted thicker than one to the square yard of surface area.

A LILY pond may be made by lining bottom and sides of an excavation with well-puddled clay of suitable consistency. The sides will be more stable if faced with bricks set in cement mortar, ifae wall having puddled clay rammed behind it as it rises.

A third alternative, which is perhaps the best where the pond is of small size, is to line the pond, sides and bottom, with concrete and cement mortar, which, if properly applied, is perfectly waterproof and will keep in good condition indefinitely.

The lining is in two layers; an inner layer, 4 inches thick, of concrete; and a facing layer, 2 inches thick, of sand-cement mortar. The solid black line c is one of a number of diametral iron wires,

THE profiling mould is a light framo- work of boards rotating round a standard stayed in four directions perpendicular to a wide base, in the exact centre of which a ½ inch hole is bored to fit an upright centre peg in the centre cf of the pond. The framework is balanced by a counterweight, c w.

When the excavation has been dug to full depth, and the bottom rammed hard and carefully levelled, the centre peg is placed and the profile standard slipped over it and plumbed till perfectly upright. The frame is then put in place (at this stage its arms are 0 inches longer than shown) to swing the frame as guide; it is then easy to work the sides to a circular shape and a constant batter or slope at all points. ;. inch thick, laid between the layers to reinforce the concrete and prevent the cracking and displacement which are only too likely to afflict large areas of plain concrete. The round dots b, on the sides are sections of rings of similar wires encircling the pond, and attached, for convenience in fixing, to iron stakes A A, stuck into the ground before lining begins. 212

Into the sides stick a number of pieces of tile, slate, etc., projecting an inch or BO, to make keys for the concrete; and place the bars A A in position. These must not project more than 5 inches.


For the concrete layer is used a mixture of 4 volumes of J-inoh granite chip-pings, 2 volumes of clean sand, and 1 volume of quick-setting Portland cement. Mixing must be very thorough, both when dry and while the water is added. Care must be taken not to make the mixture sloppy, or placing it on the sides will be difficult.

The concrete is first applied to the sides, beginning at the bottom and working round and round in stages of a few inches to give what is already hard time to set partly, before more is added above it. The profiling board, adjusted to the final inside surface size, will assist here again, for if a distance of 2 inches be maintained between it and the concrete, the thickness of the la3er will be correct. The top of the sides may be formed into a wide lip, as shown, or be of the same width as the rest of the fining.

After the sides, the bottom. Since by this time the concrete first laid will have hardened, the bottom four inches of the sides must be well wetted, and liberally coated with a cement-water cream just before the bottom cement is brought into contact with that of the sides. This will ensure a good joint. The same course should be followed at the beginning of each days work and before the lining layer is applied to the concreto layer.

While the concrete is still soft, roughen it with the point of the trowel to form a key for the surfacing coat.

SURFACING AND DRAINING OURFACTNG is done with a mixture of 2 parte fine sand to 1 part cement.

But before the mortar is applied the reinforcement wires must all be placed and fixed. Any loose rust should be cleaned off them, but a merely rusty-surface is of no consequence.

In this case the bottom is done first. When it is sufficiently hard, the profiling apparatus is set up, and the surfacing of the sides applied in stages as before, just clear of the profile.

Both concrete lining and surfacing should be protected from the sun and drying winds, and be kept damp while hardening. As soon as the surfacing is hard the pool should be filled to the brim with water. But the water should be replaced before lilies are planted, sinco it will have taken in some chemicals from the lining.

The inlet of the pipe, which is closed by a plug, is a few inches above the bottom, so that earth may not be washed into it. During emptying operations it should be protected by a fine wire screen to keep out weeds, etc.

THIS is an alternative – and it can be made a very attractive one – to the sunk pool.

First, a circular wall, faced on both sides with large stones and packed with small stones at the bottom and earth at the top, is built. Then the inside of the wall is lined and the bottom concreted.

The crevices of the outside wall may be planted with aubrietias, alyssum, saxatile, rock pinks, thymes, Alpine phloxes, lithosperrum, sedums, and other flowers, as the wall is raised; and the top forms a narrow bed for larger plants, some of which should be drooping varieties to trail down the wall. A pond of this kind is easily emptied through a hose into a drain by siphoning over the wall, if no outlet is provided at the bottom.

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