DO not use anything of inferior quality, otherwise the preserve will be a failure; it will not keep. The fruit must be dry, and as fresh as possible, and not over-ripe. Cheap sugar will prove expensive, and the lump variety is preferred to granulated. Inferior sugar causes scum, which has to be removed, and is therefore wasted. The sugar should be warmed in the oven or on the plate rack before use. If two kinds of fruit are to be mixed, the harder must be put in first because it will take the longer time to boil.
A preserving-pan of copper, brass, or aluminium, or an enamel-lined saucepan, must be used. Iron and tin utensils are poor servants. The former spoil the colour and flavour, and the latter is very liable to burn. If a small piece of butter about the size of a walnut, or a few drops of glycerine, are added after the fruit and sugar have come to the boil, there will be no need to skim the jam. A certain amount of froth may appear, but will clear in due course. The mixture must be stirred from time to time with a wooden spoon, but care must be taken in this operation, otherwise the fruit will be transformed into a mash. To prevent the hardening of fruit with pips, boil before adding the sugar. When you think the jam is done, which is usually from 20 to 25 minutes after it comes to the boil, put a little,out on a saucer. If it seta quickly it is boiled enough.
Jam can be made without sugar, by adding glycerine to it after the fruit has boiled, and boiling for about twenty minutes. Four tablespoonf ills of glycerine are equal to a pound of preserving sugar. The chief disadvantage of this method is that the jam, when set, is less than when Bugar is used.
When the jam is made, it should be allowed to stand until it has cooled a little, AND PRESERVES and then poured into perfectly clean and dry jars that have been warmed. Cover the jars at once, or wait until the preserve is cold, never during the in-between stage. Seal the surface of the jam with melted paraffin wax or paper dipped in brandy or whisky. Vegetable parchment covers will dry as tight as a drum if they are slightly damp before tying on. When writing labels, do not forget to add the date.
For making jelly, a hair-sieve or a strainer of clean flannel should be used.
Cut up one orange, one lemon, and one grapefruit, removing the pips, and put through a mincing-machine. Weigh and add about three times the weight in water, under rather than over. Allow to stand for twelve hours, then boil for fifteen minutes. Leave for twenty-four hours, and after adding pound for pound of sugar, boil till it jellies. Pot and cover.
Grate the rinds of four lemons, and add the juice of six, the yolks of six eggs and the whites of two, six ounces of butter, and one pound of lump or preserving sugar. Put all in a jug, place in a saucepan of boiling water, and stir until the mixture is a nice thick paste. Stir one way only, never reversing. Serve as jam.
Pare and cut into slices which are not very thin two pounds of apples and place them in cold water. Put two pounds of sugar and one pint of water into a preserving pan, and when it boils add half an ounce of ginger. Drain the apples out of the water and put them into the boiling syrup, and boil until tender and transparent, but not broken. Pour into small jars and allow to cool.
Apple Jelly – Put apple peelings which would otherwise be wasted in a jar in the JAMS
JAMS oven all day, with sufficient water to well cover them, or boil in a preserving pan, till the juice is the colour of tea. Strain, and let stand till next day, then boil well. When it begins to thicken add half a pound of lump sugar to a pint of juice, and flavour with almonds or vanilla essence. It is bright red when done.
To every pound of peeled and sliced bananas, allow the juico of two lemons and three-quarters of a pint of orange juice. Place in a stone jar, stand in a pan of water, and allow to come gently to the boil. Turn the fruit into a casserole after boiling for ten minutes, add half a pound of loaf sugar, and boil gently, stirring well, for about 20 minutes. Pour into jars, and seal when cold.
Allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit; put the latter on to boil, in water to cover, and add the rind of one lemon and its juice to every two pounds, and a few small pieces of ginger. Stew slowly until the berries will mash; add the sugar and cook very slowly until quite thick; remove the ginger, put into jars, and cover when cold.
Allow twelve pounds of blackberries to simmer gently for one hour. Pass through a fine sieve, but do not press. Add to every pint of juice one pound of sugar, two ounces of finely-chopped citron and lemon peel (candied), and two chopped apples. Boil for half an hour, or until it will set. Pour into jars and cover.
Blackberry Jelly (2)
Put the blackberries in a preserving pan, and place on the fire; boil for about ten minutes, stirring all the time. Strain the fruit without pressure, and to every pint of juice add a pound of sugar. Put the juice on to boil, skim thoroughly; when free from scum add the sugar. Stir till the syrup jellies when a little is dropped on a plate, thon pour into jars and cover.
Boil one pound of carrots until quite tender, then drain all the water away, and beat them to a pulp. Put into a preserving pan with three-quarters of a pound of sugar. Boil for an hour, stirring frequently. When nearly cold, add the juice and grated rind of two lemons and half a teaspoonful of essence of cloves.
After washing and removing the stalks of the currants, put them into a jar, stand it in a saucepan of boiling water and allow to boil until the juice is extracted. Strain through a bag or hair sieve, and to each pint of fruit juice allow one pound of preserving sugar. Put sugar and juice into the preserving pan, stir until the sugar is melted, and boil until the jelly is clear, removing any scum that may arise. When it sets on being tested, put into jars. This recipe is for red, black, or white currants, but black currants will require stirring frequently.
Dainson Cheese – Put ripe damsons into a jar with very little water and bake gently. When soft, drain, and rub them through a sieve while hot. Put the juice and pulp into a preserving pan with powdered sugar, allowing one pound of sugar to two pounds of fruit, and let it cook over a moderate fire till quite still, and until it leaves the sidc3 of the pan. Press into moulds, and cover for storing for use.
After taking the berries from the stalk with a silver fork to prevent stain, add the juice of one lemon and one pound of lump preserving sugar to each pound of fruit. Stand the pan near the fire till the juico has begun to run, then bring slowly to the boil. When it has become a complete mash, turn into a sieve and rub pulp through to remove seeds. Return to pan, add the grated rinds of two lemons, and boil steadity for thirty minutes. Pot and cover.
Top and tail the gooseberries, put them into a preserving- pan in the proportion of half a pint of water to every pound of fruit, and heat slowly. When thoroughly cooked, add one pound of sugar to every pound of fruit, and boil quickly for about twenty minutes.
Another method is to boil the sugar and water in a pan for a quarter of an hour and add the fruit, stirring, and allow all to simmer until ready for pouring into jars and covering.
Boil to a pulp four pints of gooseberries, after topping and tailing, in three pints of water. Strain through a jolly bag, and for each pint of juice allow one pound of preserving sugar. Put juice and sugar into the preserving-pan and boil for half an hour. Put into jars and cover.
After wiping the fruit dry, divide the greengages, and carefully remove the stones. Then put them in a preserving-pan and bring to a boil. Add preserving sugar, allowing three-quarters of a pound to each pound of fruit. Cook over a slow fire for forty-five minutes, stir frequently, and remove all scum as it rises. Crack about half the stones, remove the. Kernels, and blanch them. When the jam is nearly done, put in the nuts. Pour into clean, dry jars and when cold, tie down securely.
Mix a quarter of a pound of butter with a pound of broken loaf sugar and melt carefully. Add the whites of two eggs, the beaten yolks of three eggs, and the juice and grated rinds of three lemons. Stir over a slow, steady fire until the mixture becomes of the consistency of honej. Bottle and tie down.
Cut six bitter oranges, three sweet oranges, and one lemon very thin, and to every pound of fruit add one quart of cold water. Let it stand for twenty-four hours. Boil two hours, and let it stand until next day. Again weigh, and to every pound of fruit add one pound of sugar. Boil until the juice sets. Put into pots when cold and cover.
Marrow and Ginger Jam
Cut three pounds of peeled vegetable marrow into little squares. Place in a dish, and cover with an equal quantity of preserving sugar. Allow to stand for twelve hours. Put an ounce of ginger, a pinch of cayenne, and the clean rind of a moderate-sized lemon in a muslin bag, and place with the vegetable marrow and sugar in a preserving pan. After being brought to the boil, continue the cooking for about an hour and a half. Pot after removing the bag.
After removing the stalks of fresh-cut parsley, put into a preserving-pan and boil until the whole becomes a pulp. Strain through a flannel bag three or four times, and to every pint of liquid add one pound of sugar, and boil for forty minutes. Pour into jars or glasses, and fasten down with paper rubbed over with white of egg.
Place fresh raspberries in a preserving-pan, bring to a gentle simmer, stirring gently to help to crush the fruit. When partly cooked, pass the flesh through a sieve that will retain the seeds. When this is done, weigh the fruit and return to the pan. To each pound of fruit allow half a pound of cane sugar. Put the sugar in the oven, turning it with a knife to prevent burning. Allow the fruit pulp to come to a boil, and boil about twenty-five minutes, afterwards adding the hot sugar. When melted, boil fast for 5 minutes, or, if much juice, a trifle longer.
Cut up whatever amount of rhubarb is required and place it in a bowl between layers of preserving sugar to the same weight. Stand it aside for about twenty-four hours, and pour oft the liquid into a preserving-pan. Boil quickly for half an hour, add the rhubarb, and boil for a similar period. Leave it near the fire for another thirty
JELLIES minutes. Put in pots and cover. This jam should be used fairly quickly as it does not keep well.
Rhubarb and Fig Jam
Cut up six pounds of rhubarb and one pound of figs small. Put into a preserving-pan with six pounds of sugar and boil till it jellies on the spoon. Pour into jars and cover tightly.
Peel some ripe tomatoes, and remove the seed3. Put the tomatoes in a preserving-pan, with half a pound of sugar to every pound of tomatoes. Boil two lemons quite soft, and pound them fine in a mortar; take out the pips, and add the lemons to the tomatoes. Boil slowly till quite clear. When thick put into jars and cover.
Stew a pound of peeled and cored apples in enough water to cover them; add half a pound of lump sugar, and let it dissolve. When quite cooked there should be a full pint of pulp, to which should he added half an ounce of gelatine powder. Stir till melted. Pour in a wetted mould and leave to set. When cold, turn out and serve with whipped cream.
Take a quart of orange jelly and pour about a quarter of this into a mould. When the jelly is nearly cold put in a layer of sliced bananas, some preserved cherries, and a few small ratafia biscuits. Cover again with jelly, then add more fruit. Repeat this process until the mould is full, taking care that each layer of jelly sets firmly before more is added. Turn out and serve with whipped cream.
Grate two sponge-cakes and place them in a mould. Add a pint of hot jelly and stand aside to cool. When cold turn out, and serve with whipped cream.
Soak half a pound of tapioca in a pint and a half of water for six hours, then add a quarter of a pound of sugar, and one ounce of chocolate powder dissolved in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and boil for half an hour. Pour into a mould rinsed with cold wafer. When cold turn out and serve with custard or cream.
Boil together until clear an ounce and a half of isinglass, the juice of two large lemons, five ounces of sugar, and one pint of water. Strain through muslin, and add to one pint of claret. Do not boil again after the wine has been added. Put into a mould with some white cream set at the bottom with a little jell .
Soak half an ounce of gelatine in a gill of cold water. Melt three ounces of loaf sugar in half a pint of water, and stir over the fire until it boils. Pour over the soaked gelatine and stir until it is dissolved. Then add half a pint of strong, clear coffee, and strain. Flavour with vanilla. Turn into a wetted border mould, and when cold turn out and fill the middle with stiff whipped cream.
Make a quart of jelly, pour it into a large, shallow pie-dish, and add apricots or pineapple chunks, and leave to cool. When required, turn out and cut into strips or squares, each containing some fruit.
Lemon Jelly Cream
Dissolve a pint packet of lemon jelly in a small breakfast-cupful of hot water. When cool add to it very gradually the same quantity of cream whipped up. Pour into a wetted. Mould, and allow it to set.
Lemon Jelly Dainty
Put into a saucepan containing a quart of hot water two ounces of gelatine, the rind and juice of four lemons, half a pound of loaf sugar, a small piece of cinnamon, a few cloves, and two whipped whites of eggs. Whisk all
MEAT DISHES together over the stove until the mixture nearly boils. Let it boil up three times; then leave to simmer for a few minutes. Let ifc stand for ten minutes before straining.
Put half a pint of water into a saucepan with three ounces of loaf sugar, the thinly pared rinds of three oranges, and one ounce of gelatine. Let all cook slowly on the fire till the gelatine is melted, and the colour and flavour is well out of the rinds. Then pour in half a pint of orange juice and the juice of two lemons. Rinso out a mould with cold water, strain in the jelly, and set to get cold. If cleared too much this loses flavour.
Boil half a pound of prunes in a pint of water. Cut up one pint packet of either lemon or orange table jelly, and when the prunes are cooked, take out the stones, and then pour on to the jelly the prunes and juice, and allow the jelly to dissolve. When cool pour into moulds and leave to set.
Soak four ounces of sago in cold water for two hours, then sprinkle the sago into a pint of boiling water; let it boil until the sago is quite clear, then pour into a basin, and add half a pound of stewed fruit. Stir together, then pour into a mould that has been standing in cold water; when cold, serve with custard.
DISHES sprinkle it well with vinegar for a few hours before cooking. If there is not sufficient time, rub it with a lemon.