HAIR is Natures barometer. If the hair looks bright and glossy, the health is good; if a woman is unduly worried her hair is sure to look dull and lifeless, and like a naughty child, it refuses to stay where it is put!

Worry and ill-health encourage hair to fall off, split, and turn colour. Ansemia and nervous debility rob hair of colour and bring the grey hairs long before they should appear. A doctor may prescribe iron and other tonics and insist upon a more nourishing diet, but by the time ana3mia has shown its mark upon the hair by reducing it to a poor state, it is difficult to treat it with medicine alone.

The hair of the head is nourished by the blood, and if that be thin and impure, it follows that there cannot be a healthy growth.

Dandruff is the beginning of most hair complaints. As soon as that whito powder-like scurf makes its appearance when the hair is brushed, the condition must be treated at once.

Shampoo the hair once every week with a coal tar soap, or alternately with a germicidal soap, which is much stronger than coal tar soap.

If dandruff has got thoroughly into the scalp use the antiseptic soap onco a week 3 for a fortnight when the hair is shampooed, I then follow the treatment with a lotion f made by adding 2 teaspoonfuls of flowers 1 of sulphur (precipitated sulphur) to a s 2 oz. Bottle of cold boiled water.

If the hair is dry a little ointment will a suit the scalp better than the lotion.

I Make one with pure white vaseline, and r add a little of the precipitated sulphur.

F Mix the two together in a saucer, using e the back of a bono or wooden spoon as a the sulphur will turn silver black.

E If preferred a small quantity of sulphur r ointment can be bought at the chemist t for a few pence.

For the greasy type of Dandruff

Use e the antiseptic germicidal soap twice a ;t week for the first fortnight, then onco y every week when the hair is washed.

While the head is being treated for this ir complaint it should be kept cool, and o the wearing of tight-fitting berets or hats e that are not properly ventilated must be n avoided.

If the dandruff does not disappear or get h less evident after a months treatment, a a lotion can be bought from a chemist or ir hairdresser to kill the germ that is the probable cause of the greasy dandruff. Io The lotion usually contains salicylic acid ik and perchloride of mercury.

When the head is quite clear of dry or greasy dandruff the following tonic should be mixed and kept in the dressing-room for use each day: 2 drachms of tincture of jaborandi; 1 drachm of vinegar of cantharides; Sufficient Rosemary water to fill a 4-ounce medicine bottle.

There are, of course, many excellent hair tonics. It is not possible to suggest one that will suit every womans hair.

Always remember to wash combs and brushes used on a head that is treated for dandruff in a solution containing a few drops of disinfectant.

For Dryness of the Hair

Too frequent washing, curling and waving with hot irons, or the use of strong shampoo powders, will sometimes cause the hair to become very dry.

The hair should be brushed daily with a stiff brush, the strokes being firm but not too hard, to prevent breaking off the hair, or causing the dry hair to come out too freely. This brushing has a stimulating effect on the scalp, and if the natural oil in the hair does not appear to come back after this treatment, for a week or ten days use a little lubricating oil, which is easier to apply than oin tment.

Pure olive oil, almond oil or liquid (medicinal) paraffin are recommended. Quite a clever way to apply oil to the scalp without making the long hairs too greasy is to part the hair and with the aid of a tiny piece of sponge put the oil direct on to the scalp, and rub it into the roots. Just a few drops at a time will be sufficient.

Greasy Hair

If the hair be greasy, shampoo it twice the first week, then once a week for three weeks, using instead of an ordinary shampoo solution a tablespoonful of boracic powder. Dissolve the powder in a cup, and add a few soap flakes or shavings of castile soap, and rub this into the scalp and on to the hair.

Rinse this preparation well out of the SO hair with warm water, then to the next rinsing water add half a teaspoonful of spirits of camphor. Rinsing again is not necessary if there is no more soap left in the hair. Dry thoroughly, using warm towels, or let the hair dry in the open air, if practicable. Fresh air is good for hair that is inclined to be greasy. Sunlight also is beneficial, but it must not be too strong.

To keep the hair in a healthy condition when it is restored to its natural state, use the following lotion every night. Rub it well into the scalp with the fingers : 2 oz. Of bay rum; 1 teaspoonful of vinegar of cantharides; 2 oz. Of rosemary water.

After using this lotion for a fortnight, discontinue entirely, and give the hair the usual brushing night and morning, using brushes that are perfectly clean.

Some Hair Complaints and their Causes

When the hair begins to come out in large quantities, it must be attended to at once. The quantity does not matter so much, but if there are short young hairs amongst the longer old hairs, it matters very much.

Many women at once use the hair tonic which they probably had montlis ago for quite another purpose; others let the falling hair continue, believing that it is natural in spring and autumn to shed the hair.

In many instances the real cause of the excessive loss of hair is debility and nervous exhaustion or an excessive amount of uric acid in the system. Nothing but a course of the right medicines for any of these complaints can improve the condition.

A hair specialist will not require to ask personal questions about health; he will soon tell by inspecting the scalp and the hair combings with a microscope if Ins skilled hands can effect a cure.

Those who have bobbed or shingled hair must be careful to watch for the first signs of hair weakness or any scalp complaint and have treatment immediately. The frequent trimming, washing and waving do not agree with every kind of hair.

Long hair, as compared with short hair, remains its natural colour for a greater number of years than hair that is constantly cut off. The extreme length and weight of long hair exercises the scalp every time it is brushed and combed, and this exercise keeps the skin of the head active and in a healthy state, and the circulation is unimpaired if the skin is kept clean. Unless disease is allowed to attack a head of long hair through neglecting to keep it clean, or ill-health is suffered, the bair retains its youthful glory even after a woman has become middle-aged.

Short hair, because of its convenient length and thickness, requires only a moderate amount of energy to brush it, and consequently there is less stimulation given to the roots.

The reason why some hair loses its colour, or becomes straight immediately it is bobbed, can be explained at length, but, in a few words, it is Natures own way of showing her resentful feelings about the treatment it has received.

There would be some hope of restoring hair to its former glorious wavy state after cutting it close to the head if it were immediately allowed to grow long again, but, like a plant that is suddenly robbed of nourishment and starved too long, hair refuses to grow with the same rapidity, or fails to recover from the shock.

Bobbed and shingled heads of hair are very fashionable and becoming, but they must be well cared for and examined minutely to make sure that growth is taking place.

Premature Greyness

When a woman ia quite young, serious illness, sudden shock, and intense worry at a time when the health ia in a poor state are generally believed to be the real causes for hair turning grey or white.

White hair seldom suits the very young face, and it often proves a drawback when a woman is obliged to compete with other women, with natural-coloured hair, for a business appointment.

Small wonder, then, if a young woman so placed dyes her hair secretly with some hair restorer, about which she knows nothing save the directions that are given on the bottle. Many of these restorers are successful, but the majority act as dyes.

In the very early stages, premature greyness can often be arrested by taking suitable tonics and applying certain dressings to the scalp, but when once a strong dye is used the condition quickly becomes worse. Restorers and dyes should be chosen only by a qualified hairdresser who is an authority on treatment for hair in an abnormal state.

When a woman is past middle age and her hair is turning grey, she may just as well accept the inevitable with good humour and grow old graciously. In the fifties, hair is usually too thin to be played with, and will not stand the application of dyes without becoming brittle. What the hair needs at this age is extra care and more nourishment at the roots.

If dyeing is resorted to at all, it is some-thing an amateur cannot attempt with safety. This method of colouring growing hair must always be regarded as a temporary measure, as most hairdressers will advise when their opinion is asked. As soon as the hair begins to grow, the colour next to the head will be grey, necessitating a freah application of dye, not only to the new growth, but to the other part of the hair already coloured.

To cover thi8 first tint, the hairdresser will have to use a dye much darker in tone than that which was first used, until at last a woman scarcely recognises herself. That would not be such a dreadful shock if the new colour were a pleasing one, but Dyed hair cannot be permanently waved, and the finer the hair is, the more chance there is of it rotting through repeated applications of dyes.

When Dyeing is Absolutely Unsuitable

There are some skins so sensitive that even the use of a strong soap will cause irritation, and a coarse comb put through the hair and allowed to touch the scalp will cause sores or scratches. When the head skin is found to be particularly sensitive it is dangerous to use dyes – especially the very dark tints – for any length of time. Extreme soreness of the scalp, inflammation of the eyes – caused possibly by the blood absorbing the dye – and even de-fective vision have been known to arise after dyeing the hair.

When such unsatisfactory conditions occur it is wise to discontinue.

Hair Brushes

Choose brushes with stiff bristles, or have one stiff and the other mixed with softer bristles to use as a finisher, or when the hair requires to be smoothed straight. Brush the hair night and morning, using the stiff brush, from the scalp to the extreme end of the hair. Do not stop half-way, or the hair is liable to split and tangle.

When it is noticed that there is an unnatural amount of life in the hair, and it flies out in all directions when brushed, be careful to treat the operation of brushing the strands very gently, as hair in that state is brittle.

If tangles have formed, begin to remove them with the comb from the ends of the hair. Get the ends free first, then gradually work down from the scalp. If the scalp tingles after brushing it is a healthy sign.

Always use the comb for arranging the hair in the way it is to be dressed. Moisten it with a little water to set a wave. This is better than brilliantine, which should be put on the hair when it is brushed.

Hair that is kept clean and well brushed should have enough natural oil in it to look glossy without the use of brilliantine or any oils. A silk handkerchief or piece of clean velvet will impart a gloss to hair if it is smoothed down with either of these fabrics every day.

To Wash Brushes and Combs

Always put a grease-solvent, such as liquid ammonia into water to be used for washing brushes, as it is important to remove the dirt and grease quickly and not make the bristles too soft. A pinch of soda or a teaspoonful of borax will also dissolve the grease. The brushes should not be rubbed with soap, but dipped in and out of the solution without letting the water touch the back of the brush. Rinse the bristles under a cold water tap, bang them on the hand, covered with an old towel, then leave the brushes standing on their bristles to dry.

As previously stated, always add a little disinfectant to the water when washing brushes that have been used on a head treated for dandruff.

Combs and brushes should always be cleared of hair every time they are used, and receive a cleansing every day. Dip the extreme ends of the bristles into a cleansing solution poured into a shallow dish, and dry. Any of the ingredients mentioned above can be added to the water. It is unwise to offer the use of toilet requisites such as brushes, combs and powder puffs to anyone. They should be kept strictly for personal use.

Shampooing the Hair

Healthy hair, light or dark, can be washed every week in the summer time, but only once a fortnight in the autumn and winter. Always use soft water if it can be obtained, or strained rain water. Well brush the hair to remove the dust and any dandruff. Many women with beautiful hair always rub olive oil well into the roots of the hair as this helps to open the pores and loosen the dirt in the same way that oil will help to cleanse the face. Oil can be used by the fair or dark woman without fear, it nourishes the root3 if well rubbed in.

Dissolve a shampoo powder or some soap flakes, preferably pure soap, in a small basin of hot water to form a jelly. If there is dandruff on the scalp use antiseptic soap, such as germicidal soap, in place of the soap flakes.

Wet the entire head in the basin of warm water prepared, then rub the shampoo jelly on to the scalp and hair. If the cake of antiseptic soap is rubbed directly on to the scalp there will be less wasted. With the fingers massage the entire scalp and dislodge all the dirt from the pores of the skin, then take the hair between the ringers and rub it until it is clean.

Prepare another basin of water for rinsing. It is important to have this water the same temperature as that used for cleansing, and to cool down the rinsing water each time a fresh lot of water is used. Squeeze the hair as dry as possible, then to the final rinsing water add a small teaspoonful of vinegar if the hair is dark, or lemon juice for fair hair. These will olose the pores of the skin.

The number of rinsings depends on the length and thickness of the hair. Remove every trace of soap or the hair will be sticky when it is dry, and difficult to wave or dress.

When hair has been treated with oils, add a little boracic powder or ammonia to the first cleansing water and the first rinsing water, but the hair will require to be rinsed afterwards very thoroughly, with the last water as cold as possible to close the pores of the skin if the vinegar or lemon juico is not added.

For Auburn Hair, or Chestnut-coloured Hair

Wash once a fortnight unless certain treatment necessitates the uso of a shampoo once a week. Care must be taken not to experiment with henna shampoos, for hair of these tones requires only a good coal tar soap or carbolic soap to keep it clean. Rinse in clear warm water, cooling the last down to tepid or cold if liked. Do not use vinegar or lemon for auburn or chestnut hair.

When the hair is white, or silver grey, once every three weeks should be sufficient for shampooing, but if it is being treated with sulphur lotions, or other preparations to restore the natural colour, shampoo the hair once a week until the preparations are discontinued. When hair is in this state, it is usually inadvisable to use very strong powders. A little borax will cleanse the hair of dirt and grease, and if it is already rather dry, rub the olive oil well into the scalp before wetting the hair, then use some good soap flakes instead of the borax.

If a shampoo powder is known to suit the hair better, uso that always for washing the hair. Rinse white or silver grey hair in water to which a little ordinary washing blue has been added. This will prevent the hair from turning yellow at the ends. Dry the hair, preferably in the open air, never before a fire.

For Dry Hair that has been treated for the complaint, a shampoo once a fortnight or every ten days in summer is sufficient, but if the hair is very thin, onco every three weeks will be more beneficial. Remove the grease which has been applied in the treatment of the complaint by adding a teaspoonful of boracic powder to the water, and a very little soap. It is unnecessary to rub the olive oil in, as the scalp will be already moistened with oil. Merely brush the hair, then wet it all over before rubbing the shampoo solution into the hair and scalp. Rinse very thoroughly. When quite clean, squeeze the hair, then wrap in hot towels to dry. Do not let the hair dry before a fire, nor in strong sunlight ; if fresh air is allowed to blow the hair about it will be most beneficial.

When the Hair is Greasy a shampoo once a week is necessary while the hair is in that condition and undergoing treatment. Use an ordinary shampoo of castile soap, unless a powder shampoo is preferred. If the hair is very thick and heavy, add a little borax to the water in addition to the shampoo mixture as this will help to remove the grease quickly, or it can be added to the first warm rinsing water, in which case the hair must be rinsed a second time to remove every trace of the borax. Each time the rinsing water should be cooled down until it is almost cold, to close the pores of the skin.

It is rather important to use an astringent to close the pores of the scalp when hair is in a greasy condition, and the safest is pure cold water. If it is applied with a sponge it will be less of a shock than if the head is dipped into cold water. Dry the hair with towels, then finish in the open air, but do not let the hair get hot in the sun.

Sea Water on Hair

Some women with short hair do not find the hair at all sticky after wetting it in the sea; others are unable to dress the hair until it is rinsed in clear water. Always dry hair that is wet with salt water as quickly as possible then brush it well to restore the natural gloss produced by the natural oil in healthy hair. Do not use.brilliantine on the hair if sea bathing is practised. Whenever possible the entire head should be shampooed once a week or every ten days.

Superfluous Hairs

Although the term is usually applied to hair in an abnormal place on the body or face, many women are troubled with hairs growing low down on the nape of the neck. These hairs should never be shaved or cut off with scissors, but they may be bleached to be less noticeable or removed with patent clippers by a hairdresser if he decides it is wise to do so. It depends on the nature of the growth. Hairs cannot be pulled out if they grow close together without proving a painful operation.

If hairs grow on the chin or the upper lip they must not be shaved or cut off with scissors; these operations only tend to make the hairs grow more vigorously. If they are pulled out use small tweezers, and pull each hair quickly in the direction of growth. Hairs can be bleached with peroxide of hydrogen, or a reliable depilatory can be used. Treatment of superfluous hairs by electrolysis is more certain of success, but it is a lengthy and painful method of destroying the hairs and requires to be done most skilfully. Of all methods it is considered to be the only permanent one.

Curling and Waving Hair

Waves of enchantment and delightful ringlets can be produced on any head of healthy hair, but the hairdresser is not always to blame if they do not last for more than a day.

If hair is not absolutely healthy, it will not keep a wave any more than hair which has been artificially dyed can be permanently waved.

Waving or curling the hair with hot irons tends to make hair of any length brittle, and if persistent curling is done with hot irons the hair will possibly turn grey. If the hair is scanty, electric irons and waving by the permanent method will not suit it. Thin hair must then be waved by the water method.

How often, or when not to wave hair is a question for each woman to decide for hers elf. Some types of beauty are spoilt as soon as a crimp, or wave, or curl, appears near the face.

To Wave Hair without Heat

Use any one of the many patent curlers or wavers made of wire covered with braid, kid, or rubber, and if the hair is long plait it every night. After brushing, steam the plaits, or damp them with water, then roll the plaits up close to the head, and tie in pieces of cloth. When the hair is undone it will form into natural waves, and if repeatedly treated in this way no other waving will be required. If hair is of medium length and not very thick it can be combed into strands, and then rolled up in pieces of material, such as cotton, each piece being two inches wide and about five inches long.

When hair has to be set into waves quickly, brush it well, using a little brilliantine or good hair tonic.

Arrange the hair as desired, and fix the hair with tiny curved combs – obtainable from any hairdresser – to form waves, or secure the hair with small hair clips or pins. Do not pull the hair too tight, or the waves will not be deeply set. Cover the entire head with fine gauze, or use a hair net, and let the hair remain wrapped up until it is perfectly dry.

If this setting of the hair is done before taking a hot bath the steam will help to set the waves, and fanning the hair will assist the drying process. Take off the gauze or cap and the hair will look attractively waved as soon as the combs, clips, or pins have been removed.

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