FISH, FRESH WATER

Note that the Dorsal fin is on the back or upper edge of the fish; the Ventral fin is below, on the stomach; while the Anal is near the tail. Salmon and Trout have an extra Adipose fin behind the Dorsal fin.

Barbel.

Has a long and slender body with pointed head. Its mouth is fringed with two pairs of barbules (a sort of stiff whisker). This feature, coupled with the short Dorsal fin, makes the Barbel distinctive. The colour is a light olive-green, the scales very small. It is fairly common, and lives in clear running water.

Bream.

There are three varieties, but they are all easily recognised, since the fish has a wide body, from top to bottom, and a head that does not seem large enough for the body. The Anal fin is very long. Colour ranges from bronze-brown to silver. They haunt slow-running waters or lakes.

Carp.

Common Carp.

Not so common as the Prussian Carp, in spite of its name. Lives in muddy p^onds or clear streams. Golden brown in colour, and the Dorsal fin has a concave edge. The lateral line is marked fairly plainly.

Prussian Carp.

Deeper bodied than the foregoing, more greenish-brown and less golden. The head is rounded rather than pointed. There is an absence of barbules. The scales are large. The Dorsal fin has a convex edge.

Chub.

A silvery fish resembling many others, but may be recognised with certainty by the convex Anal fin, and patches of very light red on the lower part of the body. The Chub has less depth of body than the Roach. Found in streams in deep holes, and in the boisterous waters near mill-wheels.

Dace.

Very much like the Chub but the Anal fin is concave. The Dorsal fin is midway along the back line, but its commencing point is a trifle to rear of commencing point of the Ventral fin. The fins are yellowish and the body is bluish silver, whilst the Chub might be considered a greenish silver. The Dace lives in shoals in slow-running waters.

Gudgeon.

A fish that may be recognised by its barbules. It has one pair only. Note that the Barbel has two pairs and the Loach three pairs. The Gudgeon is of a greenish brown colour with flecks of blue. On the back the colouring assumes a dark brown, and underneath it fades away to grey-white. Swims in shoals and loves to lie on the pebbly bottom and bask in the sun.

Loach.

Long and pipe-shaped, merely tapering at each end. Has three pairs of barbules. It is a pale mottled brown, and has a very small eye. Its haunts are similar to those of the Gudgeon. The Spinous Loach has a small spine below each eye, but the Stone Loach is free from such appendage.

Minnow.

This small fish is among the most beautiful. It has blue-black markings, mottled with green, purple, and even little patches of red. The Dorsal fin is comparatively large and far set back. Its head is blunt, not pointed like the stickleback. It is fond of ponds and rivers.

Perch.

A very beautifully marked fish, easy to recognise. Its ground colour is olive, toning down to light yellow-green on the underp’arts. Across this run six vertical bars of very dark green. Its fins are bright red; these are provided with sharp pointed spines. Its chief haunts are streams.

Pike.

Has a long, pipe-shaped body with a pointed head, admirably suited to snapping at its prey. Is olive green, flecked with yellow bars, stripes, and spots, which enable it to lie among reeds, unseen. The Dorsal fin is set very far back. It is found in rivers.

Roach.

A fish easily confused with others. The Dorsal fin is set immediately above the Ventral fin. The edge of the Anal fin is concave. The under fins are flushed with red. The back is slightly arched, and the eye is red. A common species found in most rivers.

Salmon.

A silvery fish that is usually too well known to need detailed description. Can be recognised with certainty by noting that there are twelve or fewer scales lying in a row between the Adipose fin and the lateral line.

Stickleback.

A pugnacious little fish, found in ponds, streams, and, in fact, everywhere. There are two kinds. The Three-spined and the Ten-spined. These spines can be easily counted along the back. The former has, in the case of the males, a red throat in the breeding season.

Tench.

A fish unlike any other. It has a blunt head, set with a small eye. The general colouring is olive-green, and the scales are remarkably small. Usually found in ponds.

Trout.

There are several kinds, but usually the head is round, the body long and comparatively thin, the fins rounded and the sides coloured with iridescent marks. All trout* however, can be identified by the fact that there are fourteen scales or more lying in a row between the Adipose fin and the lateral line.

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