Irksome scaliness of the skin of the head; the scales show as small white flecks in the hair and on the shoulders. Some scaliness is normal, but not to the extent that it occurs in dandruff. A number of skin disorders can cause dandruff. Infection with fungoid microorganisms can usually be controlled with anti-dandruff shampoo, but if this does not give a satisfactory result, the condition could be an eczema of the head or psoriasis. A doctor can determine cause and treatment by examining the patient’s head.