Cultivating Trees, Shrubs, And Climbers (Hardy)

Description. All plants of fully woody character that can be grown outdoors summer and winter. Some varieties are evergreen, i.e. retain their foliage throughout the winter, others are deciduous, i.e. lose their foliage in autumn. There are also half-hardy and tender kinds which can be grown by enthusiasts in a greenhouse,.

Soil and Situation. Requirements are very varied. Kinds may be found for practically every conceivable soil and position. Ground must always be well dug prior to planting. If believed to be poor, it may be enriched with moderate quantities of organic manure, compost and slow-acting fertilizers such as bonemeal and hoof and horn meal. Little beyond surface cultivation will be possible once trees and shrubs are established.

English: Deciduous and evergreen trees in winter

Mixed tree planting

Planting, Deciduous trees and shrubs, with one exception, may be planted at any time while bare of leaves, roughly from early November to mid-March. The exception is magnolia, deciduous forms of which are best planted in late April or early May. Evergreen conifers, e.g. pines, firs, spruces, cedars, junipers, cypresses, etc., may be planted at the same time as deciduous shrubs. Early, November and March are usually the most favourable months. Other evergreen trees and shrubs should be transplanted in October, April, or early May, not in winter, though container-grown trees and shrubs can be planted at any time.

Plant in wide, rather shallow holes so that roots can be spread out fully and the uppermost covered with 2 or 3 in. of soil. Work fine soil between the roots and make thoroughly firm. Stake and tie all newly planted trees securely, also large bushes. Water freely if the soil is dry. Evergreens moved in the spring should be syringed nightly with water if the weather is hot. Screens of sacking, hurdles, or evergreen boughs will help if the weather is windy. Roots must not be damaged unnecessarily, nor allowed to dry.

Certain shrubs, e.g. brooms, Berberis darwinii, and cupressus macrocarpa, resent root disturbance at any time and are usually supplied in containers. From these they may be planted at any time, early autumn and spring being the most favourable. Similar remarks apply to most climbing shrubs such as clematis, jasmine, and honeysuckle. Remove the container carefully and plant with ball of soil and roots intact.

Edging box is sold by the yard as measured along the rows in the nursery beds. The plants are divided and replanted 4 in. apart so that they occupy approximately three times the room, i.e. 1 yard of purchased box edging will plant 3 yards.

Cultural Routine. Surface hoeing to keep down weeds and light forking in the autumn or winter are the only attentions required by established trees and shrubs. For the first few years grass should not be allowed to grow over the roots. Later the ground may be grassed over if desired. Trees and shrubs can be fed with a good compound fertilizer or a mulch of organic manure, or compost, either applied in spring.

Pruning

Most trees, shrubs, and climbers require little regular pruning, but sometimes it is essential to check growth to keep plants within bounds or prevent overcrowding. All diseased or damaged branches must be removed. In general, trees and shrubs which flower before mid-summer are best pruned immediately the flowers fade; those which bloom after that date are pruned in late winter or early spring. All cuts should be made cleanly either close to a main branch or just above a growth bud or side branch. Large wounds should be coated with Stockholm tar or a proprietary wound dressing.

Established wisterias are summer and winter pruned. Side growths are cut back to five leaves in July and further shortened to one or two buds in November.

Evergreen shrubs grown for their foliage, also evergreen hedges, should not be cut in winter. Hard pruning and topping, when necessary, is best done in May. Trimming may be carried out at any time during the summer. Deciduous hedges may be trimmed during the summer but any hard cutting is best left until winter.

Propagation

Many kinds can be increased by cuttings. These are of two principal types: summer cuttings prepared during July and August from half-ripened young shoots, and autumn cuttings prepared during October and November from fully ripened young shoots. Both types may either be severed immediately beneath a joint or be pulled off with a heel of older wood which is then trimmed up closely. Clematis cuttings are severed between joints.

SUMMER CUTTINGS must be rooted quickly or they will flag and die. They are smaller than autumn cuttings, varying from 1 to 4 in. in length according to the nature of growth. Insert in very sandy soil or pure silver sand in a frame or under mist, and give no ventilation until they are rooted, except that the light is lifted and wiped daily, and returned immediately. Water freely and dispense with shading so far as possible, but do not allow severe flagging. Root forming hormones may be used to hasten rooting. When the cuttings start to grow, ventilation is given, and a few weeks later they are potted singly in ordinary potting compost and slowly accustomed to normal atmospheric conditions.

AUTUMN CUTTINGS do not flag so readily and can root comparatively slowly. They will be from 4 to 15 in. in length and are treated exactly like cuttings of black currants or other fruit bushes. Choice varieties, particularly ‘evergreens, may be inserted in a frame, but should be ventilated fairly freely except during severe weather.

Many shrubs and climbers, especially those with pliable branches that can be bent to soil level, can be increased by LAYERING. This is done in the spring or autumn. One- or two-yeartold branches or vines are most suitable. Slit halfway through at a joint (with clematis between joints) where the shoot touches the ground, and peg this portion firmly to the soil or weight with a stone. Cover with more soil and water thoroughly if dry. Tie the extremity of the shoot to a stake. Roots will be formed in anything from three to fifteen months, after which the layer can be severed from the parent plant and transferred to new quarters at the normal planting season.

AIR LAYERING is another form of layering and is done without bringing the shoots to ground level. An incision is made in the branch or stem to be layered and the cut is dusted with hormone rooting powder. Moist sphagnum moss is placed around the cut and enclosed in a sleeve of polythene film, tightly tied at each end. Roots are formed into the moss and when there are plenty of these the layer is severed and, after removal of the polythene, is potted or planted. Air layering can be done at any time but is usually most effective in spring or early summer.

Some choice varieties of trees and shrubs, notably ornamental cherries, plums, crab apples, double-flowered hawthorns, lilacs, and rhododendrons, are grafted or budded on to suitable stocks. The methods in general are the same as those for fruit trees, but rhododendrons are usually grafted in a warm greenhouse. Clematises are raised commercially in the same way, but cuttings or layers produce sturdier plants.

SUCKERS can be detached with roots attached at the normal planting season, provided the shrub is not grafted or budded. If it is, the sucker will be from the stock and will not reproduce the garden shrub grafted upon it. Such suckers must be traced to their source and removed or they may choke the plant. This can be done at any time of the year.

Almost all trees and shrubs can be raised from seed, but results are sometimes unreliable, especially with choice garden forms and hybrids, as seedlings may differ considerably from their parents. Seeds of the choicest kind should be sown in well-drained pans filled with ordinary seed compost, and germinated in a cool greenhouse or frame. Seeds can be covered with their own depth of soil. The commoner varieties can be sown in drills in. deep made outdoors in March or April. Seedlings are transplanted, when large enough to handle, at the normal planting season. They should be placed a few inches apart each way in a nursery bed to grow on until big enough for removal to permanent quarters. Kinds that are difficult to transplant should be potted. Berries and other fleshy fruits should be treated like rose hips.

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR CHALKY OR ALKALINE SOILS

DECIDUOUS

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Buddleia
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese quince or Japonica)
  • Clematis
  • Clerodendron
  • Cotoneaster
  • Daphne
  • Deutzia
  • Forsythia
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Potentilla (Shrubby cinquefoil)
  • Rhus (Sumach)
  • Ribes (Flowering currant)
  • Rubus (Bramble)
  • Spiraea
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)
  • Syringa (Lilac)
  • Viburnum

EVERGREEN

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Choisya (Mexican orange blossom)
  • Escallonia
  • Hebe (Veronica)
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Ilex (Holly)
  • Laurus (Sweet bay, Bay laurel)
  • Viburnum
  • Yucca (Adam’s needle or Candle of the Lord)

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR NEUTRAL TO SLIGHTLY ACID CLAY SOILS

DECIDUOUS

  • Abelia
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese quince or Japonica)
  • Colutea (Bladder senna)
  • Cornus (Dogwood)
  • Corylus (Hazel)
  • Cotinus (Smoke bush)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Cytisus (Broom)
  • Forsythia
  • Genista (Broom)
  • Hamamelis (Witch hazel)
  • Hibiscus
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Magnolia
  • Philadelphus (Mock orange)
  • Ribes (Flowering currant)
  • Rosa (Rose)
  • Spiraea
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)
  • Weigela

EVERGREEN

  • Aucuba
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Choisya (Mexican orange blossom)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Mahonia
  • Magnolia
  • Osmanthus
  • Pyracantha (Firethorn)
  • Rhododen dron
  • Senecio
  • Skimmia

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR DRY ACID SOILS

DECIDUOUS

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Colutea (Bladder senna)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Genista (Broom)
  • Indigofera
  • Kerria (Batchelor’s buttons)
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Salix repens (Creeping willow)
  • Tamarix (Tamarisk)

EVERGREEN

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Calluna (Ling or Heather)
  • Cistus (Rock rose)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Elaeagnus (Oleaster)
  • Erica (Heather)
  • Ilex crenata (Japanese holly)
  • Juniperus (Juniper)
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Pernettya (Chilean pernettya)

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HOT AND DRY POSITIONS

DECIDUOUS

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Caryopteris (Bluebeard)
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese or quince or Japonica)
  • Colutea (Bladder senna)
  • Cotinus (Smoke bush)
  • Cytisus (Broom)
  • Genista (Broom)
  • Hedysarum
  • Hippophae (Sea buckthorn)
  • Indigofera
  • Perovskia (Russian sage)
  • Potentilla (Shrubby cinquefoil)
  • Rhus (Sumach)
  • Robinia (Acacia)
  • Rosa spinosissima hybrids
  • Rubus (Bramble)
  • Spartium (Spanish broom)
  • Spiraea
  • Tamarix (Tamarisk)

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR WET DISTRICTS AND MOIST GROUND

DECIDUOUS

  • Amelanchier canadensis (Shadbush, June berry or Snowy mespilus)
  • Cornus alba and stonifera varieties (Dogwood)
  • Hippophae (Sea buckthorn)
  • Hydrangea – not Hortensia varieties
  • Philadelphus (Mock orange)
  • Salix (Willow)
  • Sambucus (Elder)
  • Spiraea x bumalda ‘Anthony Waterer’
  • Viburnum opulus
  • Weigela

EVERGREEN

  • Artemisia abrotanum (Southernwood or Lad’s love)
  • Artiplex (Tree purselane)
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Buxus (Box)
  • Cistus (Rock rose)
  • Cotoneaster low varieties
  • Euonymusfortunei varieties (Winter creeper)
  • Hebe (Veronica)
  • Hedera (Ivy)
  • Helichrysum
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Juniperus – low varieties – (Juniper)
  • Lavandula (Lavender)
  • Olearia (Daisy bush)
  • Phlomis (Jerusalem sage)
  • Rosemarinus (Rosemary)
  • Santolina (Cotton lavender) Senecio
  • Ulex (Gorse, Furge or Whin)
  • Vinca (Periwinkle)
  • Yucca (Adam’s needle or Candle of the Lord)

Some  evergreens become deciduous or partly so; some become stunted, while others may flower late or not at all.

Yet shrubs are remarkably resilient. Roses, for example, thrive even in the busiest industrial cities, and indeed the atmospheric pollution may even have the effect of acting like a fungicide in helping them to avoid such a debilitating disease as blackspot. Roses, in fact, grow better in urban areas than, say, by the sea, which helps towards their enormous popularity.

It is not commonly appreciated how useful shrubs are in providing a labour-saving garden. One of the least pleasant tasks in the garden, for instance, is keeping down the weeds. Hoeing might be a means of gentle relaxation, and the use of weedkillers quick and simple. But if you have more important things to do with your time let the shrubs do the weeding for you. What actually happens is that ground-hugging shrubs are planted under and between the taller shrubs to smother any weed seedlings that may attempt to grow.

Ground cover shrubs, as they are collectively known, make a vast improvement to the look of any garden. With deciduous shrubs you are often left with unattractive areas of bare soil between late autumn and mid-spring, but by surrounding them with such beauties as Euonymous fortumi ‘Emerald ‘n’ Gold’ and Cotoneaster salieifolius ‘Autumn Fire’, even on the bleakest days your garden will delight the eye.

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR SHADY AND SUNLESS POSITIONS

DECIDUOUS

  • Acer palmatum (Maple)
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese quince or Japonica)
  • Cornus alba (Dogwood)
  • Daphnek
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Jasminum nudiflorum (Winter flowering jasmine)
  • Kerria (Batchelor’s buttons)
  • Leycesteria (Flowering nutmeg)
  • Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle)
  • Ribes (Flowering currant)
  • Sambucus (Elder)*
  • Spiraea x bumulda ‘Anthony Waterer’
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)
  • Viburnum winter flowering varieties

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR COLD WINDSWEPT AREAS

DECIDUOUS

  • Comas (Dogwood)
  • Cotinus (Smoke bush)
  • Hippophae (Sea buckthorn)
  • Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’
  • Kerria (Batchelor’s buttons)
  • Philadelphns (Mock orange)
  • Salix (Willow)
  • Spiraea
  • Tamarix (Tamarisk)
  • Viburnum opitlus varieties

EVERGREEN

  • Calluna (Ling or Heather)
  • Chamaecyparis laiusoniana obtusa ‘Pygmea’ (Dwarf Lawson’s cypress)
  • Elaeagnus (Oleaster)
  • Euonymnsfortnnei varieties (Winter creeper)
  • Gaultheria (Checkerberry)
  • Juniperus communis varieties (Juniper)
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon holly grape)
  • Pachysandra (Japanese spurge)
  • Pernettya (Chilean pernettya)
  • Thuja occiden talis varieties (Arbor-vitae)
  • Ulex (Gorse, Furge or Whin)

EVERGREEN

  • Aucuba
  • Buxus (Box)
  • Camellia
  • Choisya (Mexican orange blossom)
  • Cotoneaster low varieties
  • Danae
  • Euonymus fortunei varieties (Winter creeper)
  • Garrya (Silk tassel bush or California catkin bush) Gaultheria (Checkerbcrry)
  • Hedera (Ivy)
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Juniperus x media ‘Pfitzerana’ (Juniper)
  • Laurus (Sweet bay or Bay laurel)
  • Ligustrum (Privet)
  • Mahonia
  • Olearia (Daisy bush)
  • Pachysandra (Japanese spurge)
  • Pernettya (Chilean pernettya)
  • Phillyreak
  • Pyracantha (Firethorn)
  • Rhododendron dwarf species
  • Ruscus (Butcher’s broom)
  • Sarcococca (Christmas box)
  • Skimmiak
  • Viburnum

After the initial cost, and once the ground cover shrubs themselves are well established, the shrub beds will require the minimum of maintenance.

However, a word of warning: even the best ground cover shrubs will be useless in combating perennial weeds such as bindweed, couch grass, dandelions, docks and ground elder. These particular weeds must be eliminated before you do any planting at all. Also when you use ground cover shrubs, the soil has extra demands placed on it initially in the way of providing extra plant foods. So help out by feeding annually in

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS

DECIDUOUS

  • Amelanchier canadensis (Shadbush, June berry or snowy mespilus)
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Ceanothns (Californian lilac)
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese quince or Japonica)
  • Clethra (Sweet pepper)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Dentzia
  • Forsythia
  • Hydrangea tnacrophylla
  • Lacecap varieties
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Kerria (Batchelor’s buttons)
  • Parthenocissus (Virginia creeper)
  • Philadelphus (Mock orange)
  • Rhus typhina (Stag’s Horn Sumach)
  • Ribes (Flowering currant)
  • Rosa (Rose)
  • Spiraea
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)
  • Syringa (Lilac)
  • Viburnum
  • Weigela

EVERGREEN

  • Arbutus (Strawberry tree)
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Buxus (Box)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Elaeagnus (Oleaster)
  • Euonymus fortunei varieties (Winter creeper)
  • Hedera (Ivy)
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Ilex (Holly)
  • Ligustrum (Privet)
  • Mahonia
  • Olearia (Daisy bush)
  • Osmanthus
  • Pyracantha (Firethorn)
  • Rhododendron
  • Sarcococca (Christmas box)
  • Senecio
  • Ulex (Gorse, Furge or Whin)
  • Viburnum
  • Vinca (Periwinkle)

Thousands of years ago the Romans and Greeks did much of their growing of shrubs in urns and other decorative containers, which lined the formal gardens of large villas, palaces and temples. With today’s smaller gardens many beautiful shrubs can be grown in a similar way and stood on paved areas. The root restriction of the container incidentally often produces unexpected benefits such as more flowers.

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR COASTAL OR SEASIDE AREAS

DECIDUOUS

  • Buddleia
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Colutea (Bladder senna)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Cytisus (Broom)
  • Fuchsia
  • Genista (Broom)
  • Hippophae (Sea buckthorn)
  • Hydrangea macrophylta Hortensia varieties
  • Rosa (Rose)
  • Sambucus (Elder)
  • Spartium (Spanish broom)
  • Spiraea
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)
  • Viburnum

EVERGREEN

  • Artiplex (Tree purselane)
  • Arbutus (Strawberry tree)
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Elaeagnus pungens (Oleaster)
  • Erica arborea ‘Alpina’ (Tree heath)
  • Escallonia
  • Euonymus fortunei varieties (Winter creeper)
  • Griselinia
  • Helichrysum
  • Lavandula (Lavender)
  • Olearia (Daisy bush)
  • Phlomis (Jerusalem sage)
  • Pinus mugo (Mountain pine)
  • Pittosporum
  • Rosmarinus (Rosemary)
  • Senecio
  • Ulex (Gorse, Furge or Whin)
  • Viburnum

Shrubs not more than 30 cm (1ft) tall can be grown happily in window boxes and troughs, measuring at least 30 cm wide by 30 cm deep (lft by 1ft) by a satisfactory length. However, larger shrubs, measuring as much as 1.5 m by 90 cm wide (5 ft by 3 ft) will need containers at least 60 cm wide by 45 cm deep (2 ft by H ft) for healthy growth and also if the problem of constant watering is to be avoided.

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR GROUND COVER

DECIDUOUS

  • Ceratostigma (Hardy plumbago)
  • Cytisus (Broom) – low varieties
  • Genista (Broom)
  • Potentilla (Shrubby cinquefoil)
  • Salix (Willow)
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)

EVERGREEN

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Cistus (Rock rose)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Erica (Hcather)
  • Enonymus fortunei (Winter creeper)
  • Gaultheria (Checkerberry)
  • Hebe (Vcronica)
  • Hedera (Ivy)
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Juniperus (Juniper)
  • Lavandula (Lavender)
  • Mahonia
  • Pachysandra (Japanese spurge)
  • Phlomis (Jerusalem sagc)
  • Ruta (Rue)
  • Santolina (Cotton lavender)
  • Sarcococca (Christmas box)
  • Viburnum davidii-
  • Vinca

The most common reason for planting shrubs in containers is shortage of space. Yet often little thought is given to making walls and fences into a home for shrubs and climbers. These make attractive features on house walls and they can be used to camouflage bare walls of garages and fences and to conceal dustbin areas.

The flowering season of many shrubs may last for a brief two weeks at most. Once the show is over there may be little to compensate for the loss of flowers and scent. There are fortunately a great number of shrubs with particularly pleasing foliage which will brighten your garden throughout the year. Some shrubs have red, purple or copper leaves when young which rival flowers for their appeal. Pieris ‘Forest Flame”, for instance, has bright red young leaves in late spring which are just as attractive as the bracts on the showy Mediterranean climber, the bougainvillea. Later the foliage turns through pink and creamy white to glossy green.

SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR GROWING IN CONTAINERS

DECIDUOUS

  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Clematis
  • Deutzia
  • Jasminum (Jasmine)
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Passiflora (Passion flower)
  • Prunus
  • Ribes (Flowering currant)
  • Spiraea
  • Syringa (Lilac)
  • Tatnarix (Tamarisk)
  • Vitis (Vine)
  • Weigela

EVERGREEN

  • Aucuba
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Camellia
  • Chamaecyparis (False cypress) – dwarf varieties
  • Choisya (Mexican orange blossom)
  • Cistus (Rock rose)
  • Cotoneaster – smaller varieties
  • Euonymns fortunei (Winter creeper)
  • Hebe (Veronica)
  • Hypericum calycinum (Rose of Sharon)
  • Juniperus (Juniper) – dwarf varieties
  • Kerria
  • Laitrus (Sweet bay or Bay laurel)
  • Lavandula (Lavender)
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Mahonia
  • Pemettya (Chilean pernettya)
  • Picea (Spruce) – dwarf varieties
  • Pinus (Pine) – dwarf varieties
  • Prunus
  • Pyracantha (Firethorn)
  • Rhododendron and azalea – dwarf varieties

SHRUBS AND CLIMBERS SUITABLE FOR WALLS AND FENCES

DECIDUOUS

  • Abelia
  • Actinidia
  • Akebia
  • Aristolochia (Dutchman’s pipe)
  • Buddleia
  • Campsis (Trumpet vine)
  • Celastrus (Climbing bittersweet or Staff vine)
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese quince or Japonica)
  • Chimonathns (Winter sweet)
  • Clematis
  • Cotoneaster
  • Cytisus battandieri (Moroccan broom)
  • Frern onto den dron
  • Fuchsia
  • Hebe hidkeana (Veronica)
  • Hydrangea petiolaris
  • Jasminum (Jasmine)
  • Kerria
  • Lippia (Lemon scented verbena)
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Parthenocissiis (Virginia creeper)
  • Passiflora (Passion flower)
  • Polygonum (Russian vine or Mile-a-minute vine)
  • Prunus tribola ‘Multiplex’ (Dwarf Chinese almond)
  • Robina (Acacia) Rosa (Rose)
  • Vitis (Vine)

EVERGREEN

  • Cotoneaster
  • Escallonia
  • Garrya (Silk tassel bush or Californian catkin bush)
  • Hedera (Ivy)
  • Itea
  • Leptospermum
  • Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
  • Magnolia grandiflora (Tree magnolia)
  • Myrtus (Myrtle)
  • Piptanthus
  • Pyracantha (Firethorn)
  • Raphiolepis
  • Solatium (Chilean potato tree)

SHRUBS WITH FRAGRANT FLOWERS

DECIDUOUS

  • Abelia Akebia
  • Buddleia davidii varieties
  • Chimonanthuspraecox (Winter sweet)
  • Clethra (Sweet pepper)
  • Daphne
  • Fothergilla
  • Hamamelis (Witch hazel)
  • Hoheria (New Zealand lace bark)
  • Jasminatn officinale (Jasmine)
  • Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle)
  • Philadelphus (Mock orange)
  • Poncirus (Hardy orange)
  • Rhododendron – many, but particularly the deciduous azaleas
  • Rosa (Rose)
  • Syringa (Lilac)
  • Viburnum – many
  • Wisteria

EVERGREEN

  • Choisya (Mexican orange blossom)
  • Corokia
  • Itea
  • Magnolia grandiflora (Tree magnolia)
  • Mahonia ‘Charity’
  • Myrhis communis (Myrtle)
  • Ostnanthus
  • Pillyrea

SHRUBS BEARING AUTUMN BERRIES AND FRUIT

DECIDUOUS

  • Actinidia chinensis
  • Akebia qiiinata
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Callicarpa
  • Chaenomeles (Japanese quince or Japonica)
  • Celastrus (Climbing bittersweet or Staff’vine)
  • Colutea (Bladder senna)
  • Cornus mas (Dogwood)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Eiionymus alata (Winged spindle tree)
  • Hippophae rhamnoid.es (Sea buckthorn)
  • Passiflora caeiiilea (Passion flower)
  • Poncirus trifoliata (Hardy orange)
  • Punica (Pomegranate)
  • Rosa moyesii (Rose)
  • Staphylea (Bladder nut)
  • Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)
  • Vitis vinifera ‘Brandt’ (Vine)

EVERGREEN

  • Arbutus unedo (Strawberry tree)
  • Berberis (Barberry)
  • Cotoneaster
  • Gaidtheria prociimbens (Checkerberry)
  • Ilex aquifolium ‘J. C. van Tol’
  • Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon holly grape)
  • Pernettya mucronata (Chilean pernettya)
  • Pyracantha (Firehorn)
  • Skimmia
  • Stranvaesia

SHRUBS AND CLIMBERS WITH FLOWERS AND/OR COLOURFUL STEMS FOR WINTER DISPLAY

DECIDUOUS

  • Chimonanthus (Winter sweet)
  • Cornus alba sibirica ‘Westonbirt’
  • Corylus avellana ‘Contorta’
  • Daphne mezereum
  • Hamamelis mollis (Witch hazel)
  • Jasminum nudiflorum (Jasmine)
  • Parrotia persica
  • Rosa sericea (Rose)
  • Stachyurus praecox
  • Viburnum x bodnantense ‘Dawn’

EVERGREEN

  • Arbutus unedo (Strawberry tree)
  • Erica carnea (Winter ormountain heath, heather)
  • Erica x darleyensis (Darley Dale heath, heather)
  • Garrya elliptica (Californian catkin bush or Silk tassel bush)
  • Lonicera frangrantissima (Honeysuckle)
  • Mahonia ‘Charity’
  • Rhododendron ‘Praecox’
  • Sarcococca humilis (Christmas box)
  • Viburnum tinus ‘Eve Price’

SHRUBS WITH ATTRACTIVE FOLIAGE

DECIDUOUS

  • Ader japonicum ‘Aureum’ (Maple)
  • Acer palmatum ‘Atropurpurcum’ (Maple)
  • Actinidia kolomikta
  • Berberis thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea’ (Barberry)
  • Cornus alba sibirica ‘Elegantissima’ (Dogwood)
  • Corylus maxima ‘Purpurea’ (Ornamental hazel)
  • Cotinus coggyria ‘Royal Purple’ (Smoke bush)
  • Cytisus battandieri (Broom)
  • Fothergilla
  • Hippophae rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn)
  • Parrotia
  • Perovskia x ‘Blue Spire’ (Russian Sage)
  • Rhus typhina (Sumach)
  • Salix repens argentea (Creeping willow)
  • Sambncus racemosa ‘Plumosa Aurea’ (Elder)

EVERGREEN

  • Aucuba japonica ‘Variegata’
  • Calluna vulgaris ‘Gold Haze’ (Ling or heather)
  • Cistus ‘Silver Pink’ (Rock rose)
  • Elaeagnus pun gens ‘Maculata’ (Oleaster)
  • Euonytnusfortunei ‘Emerald ‘n’ Gold’ (Winter creeper)
  • Hebe pinguifolia
  • Pagei (Veronica)
  • Hypericum x moserianum ‘Tricolour’
  • Ilex x altraclarensis ‘Golden King’ (Holly)
  • Lonicera nitida ‘Baggessen’s Gold’ (Honeysuckle)
  • Photina xfraseri ‘Robin Hood’
  • Pieris ‘Forest Flame’ (Lily-of-the valley tree)
  • Pittosporum tenuifolium ‘Silver Queen’
  • Santolina neapolitana (Cotton lavender)
  • Senecio laxifolius
  • Vinca minor ‘Variegata’ (Periwinkle)
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