THE queen of the garden likes to be treated in a royal manner. In other words, roses are best grown in a separate section of the garden. They do not like to be jostled by other flowering plants.
The reason for this is that the rose, being shrubby in nature, likes plenty of air and sunshine to reach all its stems, in order that the wood may be well ripened before the winter approaches. On the other hand, roses like a certain amount of shelter from frost and very violent winds, and it is therefore convenient for the amateur to grow his roses in a special part of the garden which can be partially sheltered by a bank of shrubs or a low hedge.
In a very exposed garden, shelter is sometimes provided for roses by planting them in the sunk garden. Usually a rose garden is made in a rather formal manner, because small beds separated by stone or grass paths make the plants easier to reach, for pruning and general cultivation.
When the amateur gardener talks of roses, he usually means one of two things – either the climbing roses that can be trained over archways, porches, fences and pillars, or the standard and bush roses which provido cut flowers for the rose bowl, and button-hole and exhibition blooms.
Apart from these two classes there are a number of various rose species which might well be more widely grown. They are suitable for specimen plants in small gardens, for hedges, and for massing in shrubberies, and in a large rose garden a goodly portion of the ground surface should certainly be occupied by some of the rose species.
Among the lesser known rose species are some which have fine ornamental fruits, and these are specially useful in the shrubbery. The sweet briars are also use- ful there, or for planting as division hedges between two parts of the garden. The general planting and cultivation of these rose species is similar to that given to other shrubs.
Pruning in some cases is hardly necessary at all and in other cases can be fairly severe so as to keep the plants thick and dwarf, as circumstances demand. As a general rule, however, it may be token that the rose species such as Bosa moycsii, and the Austrian briars can be grown with no other pruning than the removal of old, worn out wood. When the plants become very overgrown, they can be cut back severely, so that their symmetry is preserved.
Bush Roses. The majority of bush roses offered in modern catalogues are hybrids, many of them being the result of crossing the tender tea roses with the more hardy Austrian briars. The so-called Hybrid perpetuals are a cross between the China roses and Damasks. They are called perpetual, not because they never cease flowering, but because, under care ful cultivation they will yield a second and even a third crop of blooms the same season.
It is difficult to trace the exact origin of a number of the best of our garden roses, and as far as the amateur gardener is concerned, it is quite unnecessary. The cultivation of all the various hybrids grown as bush roses is similar.
Soil Preparation. Roses need a good rich soil if the best results are wanted. It used to be supposed that clay was the ideal soil for roses, but as a matter of fact the modern hybrid roses succeed best in a deep, rich, well-cultivated loam. Clay is certainly a useful addition to very light soil, as it helps it to retain moisture, and therefore plant food.
Artificial fertilizers should only be used with care and discretion. Good stable manure is one of the best additions to ordinary garden soil to make it ideal for rose cultivation. Before planting, the ground should be dug to a depth of at least two feet. Stable manure at the rate of one barrow-load to about twelve square yards should be mixed with the lower foot of soil as the digging is done.
If stable manure cannot be obtained, spent hops or fish manure may be used as a substitute. Basic slag and bonemeal are the best artificial fertilizers to dig into the soil before planting. After digging a dressing of slaked lime should be given, using 2 or 3 ounces per square yard, or more on very acid soils.
Planting. The best time to plant is in autumn, though roses may be planted at any time between the end of October and April. Autumn planting allows the roots to become established before the spring growing season commences, and fewer losses will result from plants that are set out in November.
Do not plant the roses too deeply; it is better to err a little on the side of shallow planting than otherwise. The guide as to the depth should be the soil mark on the stem, which shows the depth it was planted in the nursery. The hole taken out for the plant should be wide enough for the roots to be spread to their full extent horizontally.
Rose plants arriving from the nursery can as a rule be planted immediately, if the weather permits. It is not advisable to plant in very wet weather when the ground is sodden, or when the ground is frosted. If the plants arrive during bad periods, the roots should be covered with moist soil until the weather changes.
Before planting, cut away with a sharp knife any broken portions of the root. Then hold the plant in position ir tie hole with the roots spread well out, throw in a spadeful of fine soil, and shake the plant so that the soil trickles between the fine roots. Then fill up the hole, treading the soil with the feet to make it firm all round the plant.
Do not prune bush roses at the time of planting, but wait for at least six weeks, even if they are planted in the spring. If planted in March or April they may possibly have been already pruned in the nursery. Bush roses will be pruned to within two or three inches of the ground level the first season, and it is not usually necessary to stake them, but if the tops are sufficiently large for winds to sway them, a.stake is advisable, as otherwise the roots become torn before they are established.
For the majority of bush roses, a distance of three feet should be allowed between each plant. This will allow the plants to grow to a good size without being overcrowded. No other plants should be used between the roses except bulbs which will flower before the summer commences, or very low carpet annuals, which will not choke or overcrowd the rose bushes.
Most growers of exhibition roses prefer to have nothing other than the roses growing in the beds.
This makes it easier to keep the soil surface hoed all through the season.
Standard Roses. The planting cf standard roses is done in precisely the same manner as the planting of bush roses, but the distance apart will vary according to the type of the rose and its position in the garden.
Both hybrid perpetual and tea roses, and also the climbing roses, are grown as standards, but the climbing roses are usually trained over some sort of a frame so that they make what are known as weeping standards. Either type can be used as single specimen plants, or they can be used in long beds with groups of bush roses between them. An area of about 4-5 feet square will be needed for each standard.
Pruning of Bush and Standard Roses. The experienced rose grower will prune every rose differently according to its particular habit of growth, and its condition at the time of pruning. For the novice, however, the following brief instructions will prove a sufficient guide.
The time to prune is during the last week in March or the first week in April. The first week in April is best for the most tender roses, and the novice who is doubtful about the time to prune would do well to leave all his bush and standard roses to be pruned during this week.
The first thing to do when pruning a bush rose is to cut out any wood that is broken or dead. Then examine the remaining stems, and cut out entirely all except half a dozen, or fewer in the case of a newly planted rose, leaving only strong, clean stems, pointing outwards from the centre of the bush and not crossing each other.
This is done so that the remaining stems will receive more sunshine. Now cut back these stems to a point immediately above a dormant bud. Choose a bud which is pointing outwards from the centre of the plant, because this bud will make strong, new growth, and it is desirable that it should point in an outward direction, as otherwise the bush will become unsymmetrical.
Generally, at least two-thirds of the stem can safely be removed at pruning time, but in the case of a rose which is growing very strongly and vigorously, only one-half or one-third need be cut away. The rule is always to prune more heavily the roses that are growing weakly. If the strong-growing varieties are cut back too severely, the result will be a number of heavy new stems, with plentiful foliage, but few blooms.
The best tool to use for pruning, in the hands of a novice, is a pair of sharp secateurs, which will rnako a clean cut without disturbing the rose roots by dragging at the stem.
Climbing Roses. Of the various climb. Ing roses there are, roughly speaking, two types; the roses which are merely climbing varieties of the ordinary bush roses, and the roses which grow only as climbers or trailers.
Climbing Mrs. Herbert Stevens is an example of the first type, and the well-known Dorothy Perkins is a good example of the second.
Planting of both can be carried out in the same way as the planting of bush and standard roses, but it should be remembered that where a tall pillar or archway is to be satisfactorily clothed, the food supplies, and particularly the supplies of moisture, must be generous.
It should also be kept in mind that roses planted against walls and other architectural structures are sometimes over-dry at the roots, and for this reason they need even more liberal quantities of stable manure and other humus than the ordinary bushes. Climbing roses need no particular care in cultivation apart from the fact that new stems must be securely tied to the supports as they grow, otherwise the ends become broken and tangled.
The only other difference in treatment from that given to bush and standard roses is in pruning. With the Dorothy Perkins type of climbing rose, pruning should take place immediately after the flowers have faded. At this time all the old wood which has flowered can be removed, and only new shoots rising from the baso trained in its place. Where a thick smother growth is desired, some of the old wood can also be left, but from time to time some older stems should be cut out. And the new stems trained in their place, as the newer growths bear the best flowers.
When a climbing rose has become a tangled mass of stems, the best thing to do is to remove it entirely from its support, and spread out the stems in all directions on the ground. Cut out the oldest ones. And then re-tie each of the remaining ones to the support.
In the case of those hybrid teas that are to be found amongst the climbers, the pruning is somewhat different. New long stems will not rise from the base of these as in the case of the ramblers, and some of the old wood must be retained for several seasons to form a skeleton that will cover the support.
From the old wood new stems grow which carry the flowers, and pruning consists in removing the whole or part of these stems annually, in much the same way as one prunes bush roses.
The flowering stems will be thinned at the end of the season or the beginning of the next season, and the selected shoots that are retained will be pruned back to within an inch or two of the main stem in March.
SPECIES AND VARIETIES
Among the many hundreds of roses which are suitable for the amateurs garden the following species and varieties are selected as being the ones most likely to prove satisfactory under ordinary conditions.
ROSES FOR ORDINARY GARDENDECORATION (BUSH AND STANDARD): Admiration, soft cream, tinged pink.
Angele Pernet, orange-yellow, shaded apricot.
Gmjneth Jones, carmine-orange.
Lady Florence Stronge, reddish-prawn to old rose, shaded yellow.
Mabel Morse, golden-yellow.
Mrs. A. -ft. Barraclough, carmine-pink, shaded yellow.
Shot Silk, cerise, shaded orange-salmon.
Clarice Goodacre, chrome on ivory-white.
Bethj Uprichard, coppery-pink, shaded salmon.
Covent Garden, deep crimson.
Btoile de Uollande, bright dark red. Golden Emblem, golden-yellow. Lady Inchiquin, rose-pink, suffused orange.
Los Angeles, salmon-rose, shaded apricot.
Mme. Edouard Herriot, vivid terra cotta, passing to clear strawberry-rose.
Mrs. Henry Morse, silvery rose-pink.
Billy Boy, deep yellow.
Abol, white, petals sometimes edged with pink.
Earl Haig, deep red-crimson.
General McArlhur, scarlet-crimson.
Independence Day, orange-yellow.
Lady Pirrie, coppery-salmon.
Lieutenant Chaure, rich crimson.
Mme. Abel Chalenay, salmon-pink with deeper centre.
Margaret Dickson Hamill, pale straw-colour.
Miss Willmott, soft creamy-white.
Una Wallace, cherry-rose.
William F. Drcer, golden-yellow, shaded peach.
ROSES FOR STANDARDS: Betty Upricliard, coppery-pink, shaded salmon.
Betty, coppery-rose, shaded yellow.
Covent Garden, deep crimson.
Etoile de Hollande, bright dark red.
Emma Wright, pure orange.
Frau Karl Druschki, pure white.
Golden Emblem, golden-yellow.
Golden Ophelia, yellow, edged cream.
George Dickson, deep velvety-crimson, heavily veined.
Hugh Dickson, crimson.
Hadley, dark velvety-crimson.
Independence Day, orange-yellow.
Lady Hillingdon, golden-yellow, shaded fawn.
Lady Pirrie, coppery-salmon. Lady Inchiquin, rose-pink, suffused orange.
Los Angeles, salmon-pink, shaded apricot.
Mabel Morse, rich golden-yellow.
Mme. Abel Chatenay, pale salmon-pink with deeper centre.
Mme. Edouard Herriot, vivid terra-cotta passing to clear strawberry-rose.
Mrs. Herbert Stevens, white.
Shot Silk, cerise, shaded orange-salmon.
ROSES FOR WEEPING STANDARDS: Alberic Barbier, cream. Coronation, scarlet-crimson. Eliza Robichan, salmon-buff. Ezcelsa, scarlet-crimson. Fairy Queen, lemon-yellow to white. Dorothy Perkins, rich soft rose. Christian Curie, soft shell-pink. Lcontine, red-carmine and salmon. Minnehaha, deep satin-rose. Sanders white, white. Shower of Gold, deep yellow.
White Dorothy, white.
CLIMBING ROSES: Alberic Barbier, creamy-white. White Dorothy, white. Climbing Mrs. Herbert Stevens, creamy-white.
Emily Gray, yellow.
Gloire da Dijon, salmon-yellow.
Wm. Allen Richardson, orange-yellow.
American Pillar, pink.
Dorothy Perkins, rose-pink.
Caroline testout, bright, warm pink.
Climbing Richmond, light crimson.
Coronation, pale rose-pink.
Crimson Rambler, crimson.
Hiawatha, crimson with white eye.
Pauls scarlet climber, scarlet.
Easleas Golden Rambler, yellow, glossy foliage.
Chaplins Pink Climber, bright pink.
Some recommended climbing roses
Compassion, hybrid tea type blooms of apricot/ salmon, fragrant, disease resistant foliage.
Danse de Feu, orange scarlet, very vigorous, good for a north facing wall.
Galway Bay, salmon pink, healthy foliage, good for a confined space.
Golden Showers, brilliant yellow flowers borne continuously, fragrant, compact and good for a small area of wall.
Handel, ivory blooms edged with carmine, bronze tinted foliage.
New Dawn, pink, very fragrant, moderate growth, free flowering.
Pink Perpetue, pink, fragrant, very vigorous, suitable for a north facing wall.
Schoolgirl, apricot, fragrant, vigorous growth.
Swan Lake, beautifully shaped white flowers flushed initially with pink, vigorous, constantly in bloom.