Severe dilation of the bronchi, the larger branches of the air passages to the lungs. Repeated inflammation or a congenital flaw can weaken the bronchial wall, so that it blows up like a balloon on each intake of breath. In the past this occurred frequently in tuberculosis patients, today only in patients with a lung abnormality or children with mucoviscidosis. Frequently there are few symptoms pointing clearly to the condition. The most important is repeated pneumonia. A lung X-ray shows a picture typical of bronchiectasis. Round or tubular cavities are visible in the lungs, sometimes containing a layer of mucus. Coughing up blood can also be a sign of this condition.