Anthrax

Infection with Anthrax is essentially a disease of large domestic animals such as pigs, cattle and sheep. The animals are infected via skin wounds or through the intestine with bacteria found on the ground or in food. Production of less than 100 ml per day of urine. If urine production is less than 400 ml per day the condition is known as oliguria. Anuria can be caused by disturbances in the transfer of fluids to the kidneys, by conditions of the kidney tissue and by restrictions in urinary flow, in the latter case only if the flow from both kidneys is blocked. Fluid transfer problems occur if blood supply to the kidneys is reduced, as in shock, blood poisoning , heart failure or closure of the renal valves. Serious fluid shortage through lack of intake or heavy loss (vomiting, diarrhoea, perspiration) can also be factors. Kidney tissue function can be affected by inflammation, glomerulonephritis, pyelitis or by toxins such as fungal poisoning, antifreeze and carbon tetrachloride. Blockage of the ureters can result from stones or tumours. It is important to exclude urine retention because of an abnormality in emptying the bladder (such as prostate enlargement in elderly men). Anuria causes accumulation of poisonous waste materials in the blood, leading to renal poisoning. Treatment is dependent upon the cause. An artificial kidney may be used in the short term to remove waste products from the blood (haemodialysis).

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